Of God and His Creatures

Even Plato consigns to everlasting punishment the "incurably wicked" tyrant, Ardiaeus (Rep. 615-6; Gorgias, 525b.c.; Phaedo, 113e), as an example to others. Aristotle distinguishes chastisement from vengeance, the former being "for the sake of him who offers it," the latter "for his sake who takes it " (Rhet. I, x, 17). And we read of One who says, Vengeance is mine (Rom. xii, 19). All this notion of vindictive, retrospective, or retributive punishment proceeds upon the doctrine of free will: it is inconsistent with determinism. And that is one of the objections to determinism.

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