Taxonomy of the Passions

Basic passion

(including intellective analogues)



amor (love)
  • amor amicitiae (benevolence): the one or group for whom good is willed
  • amor concupiscentiae: the good willed for that one or group.

  • dilectio (involves choice)
  • caritas (object of great worth)
  • goodness,

    and, because of goodness:
    • cognition of the good
    • similarity, either actual or potential
  • union
  • mutual cleaving of lover and beloved
  • ecstasy
  • jealousy/zeal
  • softening
  • delight in the presence of the beloved and languor in the absence of the beloved
  • fervor
  • desire and hence all actions in general
  • odium (hate)    
  • evil
  • love of the opposite or contrary

    (sense desire)

  • natural concupiscence: natural desire for necessities like food, drink, shelter, perpetuation of species, etc
  • non-natural concupiscence (cupiditas): induced desire for more of what is pleasing to the senses than is necessary for nature (peculiar to man and potentially infinite)
  • love
    fuga (aversion)            
    delectatio (pleasure)
  • natural pleasure: pleasure at the satisfaction of a natural desire
  • non-natural pleasure: pleasure at the satisfaction of an acquired desire
  • By extention:

    • gaudium (joy): delight at the satisfaction of rational desire:
    • laetitia: full-hearted joy
    • exultatio: overflowing joy, excitement
    • iucunditas: delight, enjoyment, pleasantness
  • operation
  • change
  • hope and memory
  • sorrow, insofar as it is (a) is actual and brings the loved thing to mind or (b) is remembered and has been alleviated
  • actions of others
  • doing good for another
  • similarity
  • wonder (desire to know causes) + hope (to find out)
  • expansiveness
  • desire for pleasure
  • impeding of the use of reason
  • perfection of operation
  • dolor (pain) By extention:
  • tristitia: sorrow/sadness at the possession of some evil/absence of some good with respect to oneself; includes penance (poenitentia), i.e., sorrow for one's moral sins
  • misericordia (pity, compassion, mercy): sorrow at someone else's evil or suffering as if it were one's own
  • invidia (envy): sorrow at someone else's good as if it were an evil for oneself; includes jealousy (zelus) or sorrow at the undeserved good fortune of another) (nemesis)
  • anxietas/angustia (distress): sorrow in the face of an evil that seems inescapable
  • acedia (torpor/depression): sorrow that debilitates one by taking away even the desire to escape.
  • conjoined evil or, secondarily, a lost good
  • desire for unity
  • an irresistible power that is and remains contrary to one's inclinations
  • loss of the ability to learn
  • a weighing down of the soul
  • a weakening of any operation that is done with sadness, but a strengthening of any operation by which, given the presence of hope, one tries to rid oneself of the sadness
  • spes (hope)    
  • whatever makes something possible (e.g. money, courage, wisdom, experience, etc.)
  • whatever makes one think that something is possible (e.g., either experience (in some cases) or the lack of experience (in other cases)
  • love of that which makes something arduous possible for us
  • helping the operation by which one tries to acquire the arduous good
  • pleasure or delight
  • desperatio (desperation)    
  • whatever makes something impossible
  • whatever makes one think that something is impossible
  • hatred of that which makes something arduous impossible for us obstructing the operation by which one tries to acquire the arduous good
  • sorrow or sadness
  • timor (fear)
  • natural fear: fear of corruptive evils because of a natural desire for being
  • non-natural fear: fear of a sorrowful evil that is repugnant not to nature but to desire
  • With respect to one's action:

  • segnities (sluggishness): fear of hard work
  • erubescentia (timidity, embarrassment): fear of what others will think of you if you act in a given way in the future
  • verecundia (shame, disgrace): fear of what others will think of an act that has already been committed
  • With respect to external evil:

  • admiratio: fear of some great evil whose outcome one is not sufficient to figure out
  • stupor: fear of an unaccustomed evil that one considers great
  • agonia: fear of an unanticipated evil
  • love
  • lack of virtue in the one who fears
  • strength and power in the object of fear
  • shrinking of spirit
  • openness to counsel
  • trembling
  • impeding of operation, especially bodily operations
  • audacia (daring)    
  • hope
  • whatever causes hope (see above)
  • whatever reduces or banishes fear
  • wine, etc.
    ira (anger) Note: anger always has two objects: (a) vindication as a good and (b) the person or thing that one seeks vindication with respect to as something evil.
  • fel (wrath): anger that is ignited quickly
  • mania (bitterness): abiding or long-lasting anger; bitterness
  • furor (fury): anger that does not subside until there is vengeance; anger with a firm resolve to punish
  • injury done to one either directly or indirectly--or memory thereof
  • the contempt unjustly shown for you by the one you are angry with, viz., disrespect (despectus), obstructing you from doing something (epereasmus), or insults (contumelatio)
  • a particular excellence in the angry person or defect in the other
  • pleasure produced by the hope for and anticipatory enjoyment of vengeance
  • heatedness
  • hindering of the use of reason
  • taciturnity (as when one tries to hold in one's anger and turns red in the fact, or as one is so angry one cannot speak)