The Development of the American Labor Force
I. THE ARRIVAL OF THE AMERICAN LABOR FORCE
* Denotes required reading.
American Exceptionalism and Early European Migration
Haines, Michael. “The Population of the United States, 1790-1920.” In Engerman, Stanley and R. Gallman (eds.), The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, Vol. II, The Long Nineteenth Century, Cambridge: 2000. pages 1-14 and 47-62 ONLY.
* Steckel, Richard and Joseph Prince. “The Tallest in the World: Native Americans of the Great Plains in the Nineteenth Century,” American Economic Review, 2001.
Hughes, J.R.T. “What Difference Did the Beginning Make?” American Economic Review, 1977.
Galenson, David. “White Servitude and the Growth of Black Slavery in Colonial America,” Journal of Economic History, 1981.
Darity, Jr., William. “The Numbers Game and the Profitability of the British Trade in Slaves,” Journal of Economic History, 1985.
* Letwin, William. Review of Time on the Cross, Journal of Economic Literature, 1975.
Fogel, William. “Three Phases of Cliometric Research on Slavery and Its Aftermath,” American Economic Review, 1975.
Turn of the (Last) Century European Immigration
Hatton, Timothy and Jeffrey Williamson. “After the Famine: Emigration from Ireland,” Journal of Economic History, 1993.
* Collins, William. “When the Tide Turned: Immigration and the Delay of the Great Black Migration.” Journal of Economic History, 1997.
Working Conditions and Unionization
Freeman, Richard, and Morris Kleiner. “The Last American Shoe Manufacturers: Changing the Method of Pay to Survive Foreign Competition.” NBER Working Paper #6750 (1998). [Published in Industrial Relations 44(2005).]
Freeman, Richard. “Spurts in Union Growth: Defining Moments and Social Processes.” NBER Working Paper #6012 (1997). [Published in edited volume. The Defining Moment: The Great Depression and the American Economy in the Twentieth Century. Michael Bordo and Claudia Goldin, eds. 1998.]
II. EDUCATING THE WORK FORCE
Goldin, Claudia and Lawrence Katz. “Why the U.S. Led in Education: Lessons from Secondary School Expansion, 1910-1940.” Working paper, 2002.
* Card, David and Thomas Lemieux. “Dropout and Enrollment Trends in the Post-War Period: What Went Wrong in the 1970s?” In Gruber, John (ed.) Risky Behavior Among Youth, Cambridge: 2001.
* Goldin, Claudia; Lawrence Katz and Ilyana Kuziemko. “The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 20(2006): 133-156.
Neal, Derek. “How Vouchers Could Change the Market for Education.” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2002.
III. INTEGRATING THE LABOR FORCE
Reber, Sarah. “Court-Ordered Desegregation: Successes and Failures Integrating American Schools since Brown.” Journal of Human Resources, 2005.
* Donohue, John and James Heckman. “Continuous versus Episodic Change: The Impact of Civil Rights Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks.” Journal of Economic Literature, 1991. READ ONLY Introduction and Sections III and IV, i.e. pp. 1603-1607 and 1630-1641.
Hellerstein, Judith; David Neumark; and Melissa McInerney. “Spatial Mismatch or Racial Mismatch?” Journal of Urban Economics 64(2008):464-479.
Pan, Jesssica. “Gender Segregation in Occupations: The Role of Tipping and Social Interactions.” Manuscript, University of Chicago (2009).
* Kreuger, Alan; Jesse Rothstein; and Sarah Turner. “Race, Income, and College in 25 Years: Evaluating Justice O’Connor’s Conjecture.” American Law and Economics Review 8(2006): 282-311.
Blau, Francine and Kahn, Lawrence. “Gender Differences in Pay.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 14(2000): 75-99.
Bertrand, Marianne; Claudia Goldin and Lawrence Katz. “Dynamics of the Gender Gap for Young Professionals in the Financial and Corporate Sectors.” Manuscript, Harvard University (August 2009).
IV. WORKING CONDITIONS PART II
* Gant, Jon; Casey Ichniowski; Kathryn Shaw. “Social Capital and Organizational Change in High Involvement and Traditional Work Organizations.” Journal of Economics and Management Strategy 11(2002): 289-328.
* Autor, David; Frank Levy; and Richard Murnane. “Upstairs, Downstairs: Computers and Skills on Two Floors of a Large Bank.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 55(2002):432-437.
Frydman, Carola. “Rising Through the Ranks: The Evolution of the Market for Corporate Executives, 1936-2003.” Manuscript, MIT (2005).
V. MOVING FOR JOBS AND LUCK IN THE LABOR MARKET
Kahn, Lisa. “The Long Term Consequences of Graduating from College in a Bad Economy.” Labour Economics (2010).
Wozniak, Abigail. “Are College Graduates More Responsive to Distant Labor Market Opportunities?” Journal of Human Resources (2011).
* Molloy, Raven, Christopher L. Smith, and Abigail Wozniak. “Internal Migration in the United States.” Journal of Economic Perspectives (2011).
Shapiro, Jesse. “Smart Cities: Quality of Life, Productivity and the Growth Effects of Human Capital.” Review of Economics and Statistics 88(2006): 324-335.
VI. THE IMPACT OF IMMIGRANTS ON NATIVE WORKERS
Wozniak, Abigail and Thomas J. Murray. “Timing is Everything: Immigrant and Native Migration Dynamics in the U.S.” Journal of Urban Economics (2012).
* Card, David. “Is the New Immigration Really So Bad?” Economic Journal 115(2005):F300-F323.
Borjas, George. “Does Immigration Grease the Wheels of the Labor Market?” 1(2001):69-119.
Kuzeimko, Ilyana. “Human Capital Spillovers in Families: Do Parents Learn from or Lean on Their Children?” Manuscript, Princeton University (2011).
VII. WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD?
Chapters 4 and 7 from Enrico Moretti's book The New Geography of Jobs.