Milestones in Medical Imaging
German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen produced the first X-ray
picture of the body.
The chest X-ray aided early detection of tuberculosis.
X-ray contrast medium developed.
Radiographic imaging of the gallbladder, bile duct, and blood vessels
Coronary artery imaging enabled.
Nuclear medicine applied to imaging the kidneys, heart, and skeletal
X-ray image intensifier units provided dynamic imaging of a beating
heart and its blood vessels.
Panoramic X-ray images taken of the entire jaw and teeth.
Ultrasound imaging developed.
X-ray mammography used for imaging the breasts.
Computed Tomography (CT) scanning invented by Allan Cormack, a professor
of physics at Tufts University, and Godfrey Hounsfield, a British
engineer. Cormack and Hounsfield received the 1979 Nobel Prize
in Physiology or Medicine for their efforts.
Digital radiography developed.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) developed by Paul Lauterbur, professor
of chemistry, biophysics, computational biology, and engineering,
and Sir Peter Mansfield, professor of physics at the University
of Nottingham. In 2003 Lauterbur and Mansfield received the Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work.
Three-dimensional image processing using digital computers and CT
or MR data first conducted.
Clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanning developed by
scientists at the University of California.
Spiral CT allows fast-volume scanning of an entire organ in 30 seconds.
Echo Planar MR Imaging (EPI) developed.
Open MRI Systems designed, allowing MR scanning of severely claustrophobic
or obese patients who could not tolerate conventional MR imaging
in a closed system.