Creation Date: August, 2002,
Last Modified: August 2, 2008
The WEB as Research Tool
- The Web is a mixed blessing!
- WalMart vs the Mall
- WEB databases are like specialty stores at the mall, focused.
- The WEB in general is like Wal-Mart or a general store, a bit of everything.
- Junk vs Quality
- Some WEB sites and resources are invaluable, such as:
- NGO and IGO documents, reports, etc.;
- Government documents;
- Alternative news sources;
- Point of view and movement group sites; and
- Voice of the previously voiceless sites
- However, some WEB sites and resources are junk.
- ANYONE can claim ANYTHING on the WEB -- so be careful.
- WEB databases usually contain highly selected, authoritative content.
- If accessed through the ND website, Google Scholar is linked to many of those databases.
- Google Books provides increasing access to the fulltext of books online.
- Wikipedia is a special case
- Wikipedia is great for basic facts (name, dates, places, etc.) with which to search further.
- Wikipedia is not so great for controversial issues.
- Wikipedia's realiability has improved recently with the introduction of some editorial oversight.
- FYI (for your information), Notre Dame subscribes to the Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
- Surface or Visible vs Deep or Invisible Web
- The Surface or Visible Web
- Is about 25% of the Web and
- Is accessible through search engines and directories.
- Their coverage and results vary greatly.
- It's often good to use more than one.
- Specialty search engines are listed in Major Search Engines and Directories By Danny Sullivan, The ClickZ Network, Mar 28, 2007.
- Search engines with heaviest use as of June, 2007 according to Top 10 Search Providers, June 2007 by Enid Burns, The ClickZ Network, Aug 13, 2007.
- Google -- 52.7%
- Yahoo -- 20.2%
- MSN/Windows -- 13.3%
- AOL -- 5.5%
- Ask.com -- 2.1%
- My Web Search -- 1.0%
- For a more comprehensive list of search engines worldwide see the "List of search engines" article in Wikipedia.
- The Deep or Invisible Web
- Is about 75% of th Web and
- Is accessible through databases whose homepages are accessible but whose data is not, for example:
- Library catalogs;
- Commercial databases; and
- Databases which do allow indexing by external parties
- For the latest on search engines, meta search engines and directories see
The Hesburgh Libraries of Notre Dame
As a Virtual or Electronic Library
- is THE place to start for most research;
- has links to the ND catalog which has records for almost everything we own; and
- has links to hundreds of electronic databases to which we subscribe.
- Off site access to subscriptions is limited to current ND people.
- On site access to subscriptions is available to the general public.
- Access costs ND about $3 million per year.
- With your NetID you can access these databases from off campus anywhere in the world.
- Does not yet include materials in the Kresge Law Library (coming in 2009)
- has links selected specifically for the Kellogg and Kroc Institutes.
As a Physical Place, has several buildings
Theodore M. Hesburgh, C.S.C. Library
- is the main library;
- contains books, documents, journals, newspapers, etc.
- in paper, microform, electronic, etc. formats
- for social sciences, arts and humanities and business;
- is open everyday except Thanksgiving, Christmas, New Years, & Easter;
- has many service units; and
- has many library faculty and staff avaiable to help.
Branch Libraries and Information Centers
- There are four branch libraries (Math, Chemistry Physics, Engineering and Architecture).
- There are two information centers (Business and Peace Studies/International Studies).
- The Kellogg Kroc Information Center (Peace Studies/International Studies)
- is located in the Hesburgh Center for International Studies;
- is open from 1:00 to 5:00 pm Monday through Friday;
- is staffed by Vonda Polega (Senior Library Specialist, 631-6656,
assisted by students;
- has many newsletters and working papers; and
- does many, many interlibrary loan requests each semester.
Kresge Law Library
- is not a branch of the Hesburgh Libraries;
- is administered separately for reasons of accreditation;
- is located on the second floor of the Law School building;
- is open to the general public from 9:00 am to 5:00 pm Monday through Friday;
- has many materials on international law and human and civil rights;
- holdings are not yet in the ND Library Catalog; but
- holdings may be found at http://innopac.law.nd.edu/.
Physical Arrangement of Resources: Call or Classification Numbers
- To find items you will need a call number.
- Call numbers are found in the ND Catalog.
- Books and print journals are intershelved by call number.
- For most items ND uses the Library of Congress (LC) system.
- This is a letter-number-letter-number system (e.g. BL 65 .S62 A66 2000).
- The period is not a period; it is a decimal point.
- Think of the call number as a mailing or postal address.
- It runs from broadest category to narrowest category.
- Country > State/Province > City > Street > House > Apartment Number.
- Recent (1968 to date) U.S. government documents use the SuDocs system.
- SuDocs refers to the Superintendent of Documents.
- It is also an alphanumberic system (e.g. Y 3.2: T 27/2/FINAL).
- All numbers are whole numbers not decimals.
- The period is a period not a decimal point.
- Each punctuation mark starts a new subsequence.
- It is also a hierarchical (from broad to narrow) system.
- The arrangement is based on the often changing structure of the U.S. government.
- Publications of a given agency within a given department are shelved together.
- European Community documents are shelved by LC call number in the Lower Level.
- United Nations documents on microfiche are filed by UN number in the Lower Level.
- Charts indicating which call numbers are on which floors are available:
- at all service desks and in the elevators and
- at http://www.library.nd.edu/about/maps/lclist.shtml
- Creating Search Statements in Online Databases
- Most of these techniques work in most online databases including Google.
- When they don't work, consult the database's "help" page.
- There are three basic Boolean (Logical) Operators (Connectors)
, AND, OR, and NOT (or ANDNOT).
- AND narrows your retrieval reducing the number of hits.
- OR broadens your retrieval increasing the number of hits.
- NOT narrows by excluding and is dangerous to use in most cases but very helpful once in awhile.
- Usually you can search for phrases by enclosing the phrase in quotation marks, e.g. "apple trees".
- Other proximity operators may be available; see "Help" in the specific database.
- You can nesting (or group) search terms using parentheses,
(computers or microcomputers) and (apple not (trees or orchards))
- You can use truncation and wildcard symbols to search for variant spellings. The most common truncation symbols are the asterisk * and the question mark ? .
- It is an invaluable index (Database).
- It is available online from 1999 to date.
- It is available in paper from 1984 to date.
- It is the only strictly Peace Studies index that we know of.
- Its paper issues are located in the Hesburgh Library General Reference Collection to the far right of the Reference Desk at Ref. JX 1901 .P38.
For books, docs, etc.
- owned by the Hesburgh Libraries of Notre Dame (note: does not include Law Library holdings),
- owned by Notre Dame's Kresge Law Library,
To skim all academic disciplines for articles in scholarly journals
- Go to the subject page for Peace Studies and use one or more of the following databases.
- Or use Google Scholar by going to Google.com and selecting "More."
For more articles in a specific academic discipline
- Go to the subject page for Peace Studies and select "All Databases" near the top of the page for selected (the best) subject specific databases for Peace Studies or select a specific discipline at the bottom of the page for a longer list of subject specific databases.
For more articles in a popular magazine and periodicals
- Go to the subject page for Peace Studies and use one of the following databases.
For contemporary news coverage
- Go to the subject page for Peace Studies and use one of the following databases.
For historical newspapers
- For online fulltext, on the Libraries homepage go to "Find Articles or Journals > More > Newpaper Databases" Find Articles in Newspaper Databases
- Select from the growing list of newspapers of record
- Mostly U.S. at this time.
- For newspapers on mircofilm or microfiche, go to the ND Libraries Catalog
- Select the "More" tab and then Select "Newspapers"
- Search by name and or location
- ND has strong holdings in African-American, Irish and colonial U.S newspapers plus Le Monde and a full run of the Times (London).
- See Center for Research Libraries (CRL) for extensive runs of both U.S. domestic and foreign newspapers available for loan in paper and/or on microfilm.
To Find U.S. Government Documents
To Find NGO, IGO and Non-U.S.Documents
For working papers and reports
- Go to the subject page for Peace Studies and use one of the following databases.
For non-U.S. dissertations, newspapers and highly specialized collections
- Go to the subject page for Peace Studies and use the following database.
Interlibrary loan (ILL)
- ILL can get almost anything you need.
- ILL does not charge for its service; its free.
- ILL will need an accurate citation and a little time.
- Turn around time varies.
- Some items come quickly (24 hours) if they can be scanned and emailed.
- Some items take a lot longer (two or more weeks)if they have to be photocopied and mailed -- especially if they are coming from outside the U.S.
- Articles will be sent to you electronically as PDFs or mailed to you.
- Microfilms will be sent to the Microtext Department and may be picked up from the Lower Level Service Desk.
- Books can be picked up in the Hesburgh Library or delivered to the KKIC.
- From 9:00 am to 5:00 pm, Monday through Friday, pick them up in the ILL office (behind the Reference Desk (first floor).
- Any other time, pick them up at the Reference Desk -- when it is open. See Hours.
- Requests: Items can be requested in two ways:
- Electronic ILL forms on ILL Webpage;
- Electronic ILL forms using FindText from within individual databases;
- If you have an unusual request or wish to follow up on any ILL request, ask!
- See Vonda in the KKIC.
- See Karen Malling (574-631-5758; email@example.com)
, ILL Supervisor.
- See me.
The Academic Libraries of Indiana (ALI) Program
- You may borrow books at any other participating ALI library.
- Manchester, Earlham and Goshen Colleges and the Associated Mennonite Biblical Seminary have Peace Studies programs and supporting library collections
- Indiana University, Purdue University and Ball State University have large research collections with portions relevant to Peace Studies.
- Bring your ND ID card to the circulation desk at Hesburgh or any of the branch libraries, M - F 9am-5pm.
- Fill out an "ALI" form to receive an "ALI" card.
- Show the ALI card at the Indiana Academic library where you wish to borrow books.
- Your ALI privileges and loan periods are determined by the library you are visiting
Circulation ( Check/Charge Out and Check/Charge In )
- Circ is located in the lobby on the first floor of Hesburgh Library.
- Staff can search for books which are not on the shelf.
- Staff can recall books checked out to other people.
- You can renew books online after logging into My Account.
- You can recall books online
- You can initiate searches for books which are not on the shelf after logging into My Account.
- You can check out books using the "self-checkout" machine in the Hesburgh Library first floor lobby.
- first 3000 pages per year are free.
- see the Kroc if you need more.
- is 15 cents per page if using cash.
- is 10 cents per page if using copy card.
- copy card can be purchased for 50 cents in the Hesburgh Library first floor lobby.
- Be sure to add value to the card after purchasing it.
- Contact me, your friendly Peace Studies librarian.
- Contact Vonda at the KKIC.
- Visit the Hesburgh Library Reference Desk.
- Use ASK A LIBRARIAN for email or live chat.
- Contact one of our subject librarians in related disciplines.
- Anthropology -- Jessica Kayongo, 206 Hesburgh Library, 631-5176 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Catholic Studies -- Jean McManus, 205 Hesburgh Library, 631-1703 email@example.com
- Economics -- Jean McManus, 205 Hesburgh Library, 631-1703 firstname.lastname@example.org
- History, Non-U.S. -- Dave Jenkins, 223 Hesburgh Library, 631-9036, email@example.com
- History, U.S. -- Margaret Porter, 204 Hesburgh Library, 631-7620, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Political Science -- Mike Lutes, 115 Hesburgh Library, 631-4182, email@example.com
- Pyschology -- Cheri Smith,222C Hesburgh Library, 631-4271, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Sociology -- Mike Lutes, 115 Hesburgh Library, 631-4182, email@example.com
- Theology (Religion) -- Alan Krieger, 210 Hesburgh Library, 631-6663, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Contact one of our other subject librarians. A complete list is at
If you don't yet know what's available on you topic, use:
- Personal networking (professors, colleagues, friends and contacts);
- Citations and bibliographies (books, articles and web pages);
- Google to browse or search the Web for possibilities; and especially
- Library identification tools (catalogs, indexes and bibliographies)
- Reference sources for background information and further citations;
- ND Catalog which has records for books, documents, journals, etc.; and
- Databases that index periodical or newpaper articles, documents, reports, etc.
Once you know what's available, find it:
- On the WEB often in the same database used for identification;
- In print or on microfilm or microfiche in the Hesburgh Libraries;
- From another library using our Interlibrary Loan services; or
- By asking the library to buy it.
Don't hesitate to ask for help!
Your Personal Librarian
I'm usually here from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm Monday through Friday along with an occasional Saturday. Feel free to call, email or drop by my office anytime to make a appointment. If I don't already have a prior committment, we can usually talk right then and there. If I am already committed, we can always schedule a time. You're always be welcome.
J. Douglas (Doug) Archer
Reference and Peace Studies Librarian
109 Hesburgh Library
(574) 631-6656 office
(574) 631-6667 fax
(574) 271-9573 home
for International Students in the Master of Arts Program
of the The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies
Freedom and Initiative
The stereotypes of the United States as the land of rugged individualism and of vast freedoms are in many ways alive and well in American libraries. For instance, not only are you free to go into the stacks (or the circulating collection of books and journals), you are expected to do so. Much of life is self-service and assumes that you will take the initiative. Almost all of our collections are open and available to the general public. The primary exception is Rare Books and Special Collections -- for obvious reasons. They contain rare (very expensive), often irreplaceable items. In addition items in most collections (including government documents) may be borrowed by or loaned to (checked out or charged out) by faculty and students, that is, they may be taken out of the building. And lastly at present there is no real limit as to how many items you may have charged out at any given time. The practical question is "how many books can you carry?"
Questions and Authority
Another cultural trait which sometimes takes a little getting used to is that Americans are generally quite willing to ask questions, even (some would say "especially") of those in positions of authority. Therefore it is OK to ask questions. In fact, it is expected -- at least by most people. When you are confused (and you will be confused at times, it's normal), don't hesitate to ask questions. Ask for help; seek clarification. This goes for librarians and library staff and for your faculty at the Kroc Institute.
Neighborliness and Service
A close relative of this questioning mind set is a general willingness to help. It's often called neighborliness and, although visitors to a few of our largest urban centers might not always find it to be pervasive, it is still alive and well in much of the United States including Indiana. "Hoosiers" (the nickname for Indiana residents) take pride in being part of America's midwestern heartland. In general, they will go out of their way to be neighborly -- though occasionally you will find a little suspicion of the stranger. Of course, the level of suspicion has risen since 9/11. Expressed as service, this neighborliness is a hallmark of the Universtiy Libraries. Our staff take pride in providing excellent professional service. Please make use of it. It will make your time with us both more productive and more enjoyable.
Your expectations of study at Notre Dame will differ significantly. Your professors will articulate their expectations for your classroom work, study and research. Again, be sure to ask for clarification if you are in anyway unclear as to what will be demanded of you for any and all of your courses. Your course work is unlikely to be based on textbooks -- and the required and recommended reading lists will sometimes be daunting. The more you take advantage of the wealth of resources available in and through the Hesburgh Libraries, the better things will go for you. One of the purposes of this document is to introduce you to that abundance of materials and provide guidance for making the most efficient and effective use of them.
Language and Terminology
We come from a variety of English language traditions -- no one, specific variety of which is the correct one. For some of us our version will be our mother tongue. For others it will be our second language (or third or fourth). Within a given national setting there may be great variety. Even within academe in America there is variation. For instance, I was a religion major as an undergraduate. A similar major at Notre Dame would be in theology yet the Kroc Institute uses "religion." Though the terms are not synonymous they are often used interchangably in less formal conversation. Don't be surprised if misunderstandings arise or false conclusions are reached due to the ambiguity and fluid nature of our "common" language. Be sure to ask for clarification when something doesn't sound or feel right, when a conversation doesn't quite seem to be flowing or holding together. It might just be our choice of terms. Also, as with all professions, we librarians have our own collection of esoteric jargon (in house shortcuts). We try to avoid using it as much as possible with students and researchers but we occasionally slip up. Please feel free to question me at anytime about my selection of words.
Last Bit of Advice
Never hesitate to ask questions. When in doubt, ask! Oh, and before I forget, ASK!!!