University of Notre Dame College of Engineering

Zartman Lab

Quantitative Analysis of Pattern Formation, Growth and Regeneration


Bio-/chemical engineers can contribute significantly toward understanding how to manipulate organ size, shape and function. Engineers bring a diverse and versatile "toolkit" to decipher mechanisms of organogenesis and multicellular communication: solving reaction-diffusion and transport problems, utilizing control and decision theory, applying quantitative and statistical methods of analysis, and employing experimental knowledge in the analysis of soft materials.

The research focus of the lab can be classified into three broad areas.

Biophysics of epithelial organ development and morphogenesis

Biophysics of epithelial organ development and morphogenesisThere is a great need to study developmental biology from an engineering perspective to develop new strategies for building tissues and treating degenerative tissue diseases. Probing animal development with quantitative tools can potentially improve traditional methods of tissue engineering as well as inspire completely novel methods for creating synthetic organs. Toward this end, the research program in the lab focuses on integrating chemical and mechanical signaling at the tissue scale through advancing the state of the art for in vitro tissue culture and utilizing computational modeling of tissue patterning and morphogenesis.

The fruit fly, Drosophila, has served as an important model system for identifying tumor suppressor genes, which are conserved in humans as well, and due to the genetic tools available is the main model system investigated by the lab.

Learn more about biophysics of epithelial organ development and morphogenesis

Growth control of epithelial tissues in development and regeneration

Growth control of epithelial tissuesUnderstanding how individual cells and whole organs regulate their size is essential to developing new techniques in treating cancer (too much growth). A related question is how to cell signalingn to improve or increase the potential for regneration in wounded tissues.

What is lacking is a quantitative understanding of how cells incorporate external inputs from their surroundings to regulate final tissue size. Our lab employs live imaging using confocal microscopy, quantitative data analysis and modeling to further our understanding the regulatory network determining robust growth control.

Learn more about growth control and epithelial tissues

Advancing cell and organ culture methods

tissue and cell culture optimizationCell culture. In recent years, insect cells have become important for heterologous recombinant protein production using the baculovirus expression system. Developing a better quantitative understanding of the metabolism and kinetics of insect cell growth will significantly improve the production process of novel therapeutics and vaccines.

We are developing advanced chemically defined media for Drosophila cells, which enables greater control for biochemical studies. We envision that such efforts will help us to identify novel factor(s) affecting cell growth and differentation.


Organ culture. Organ development and homeostasis are directed by a “symphony” of signals. However, the mechanisms integrating hormonal, environmental, and genetic inputs to control the size, shape, and identity of multicellular compartments in the body remain an open question with significant implications for stem cell engineering and regenerative medicine. To investigate the crosstalk between different signaling modalities, new methods are required that provide controlled microenvironments with cellular resolution imaging capabilities.  

Current research focuses on identifying extrinsic growth factors and improving media for Drosophila wing imaginal discs, an established model for studying the genetics and biophysics of growth control. We are also developing "Drosophila-on-a-chip" devices in a collaborative venture with Professor David Hoelzle in AME. Learn more about cell and organ culture optimization


Advance microfluidic devices for manipulating and imaging organ culture