University of Notre Dame
. .
Kellogg Institute Home .
.

Working Papers - 1985 (#39 - #55)

Click Working Paper title to download (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader).

Please also note, biographical information was current at publication date.

Los Limites a la Irrupcion de Alan Garcia

Luis Pásara

Working Paper #55 - December 1985

Abstract

This work tries to evaluate the main difficulties faced by Alan García's Aprista government, four months after his inauguration in Peru. For that purpose, it examines the contradictory constituencies of Apra, the political effects of the economic difficulties, the growing resistance from the military and the competitive strategies developed by both the legal left and the Shining Path terrorist guerrillas. Finally it argues that the new goverment's personalized style does not augur well for the consolidation of a democratic institutional framework in Peru.

Resumen

Este trabajo intenta una evaluación de las principales dificultades que enfrenta el gobierno aprista de Alan García, a los tres meses de haberse hecho cargo del poder ejecutivo en el Perú. Con ese objetivo, pasa revista a las contradictorias bases sociales dentro del Apra, los efectos políticos de las dificultades económicas, las emergentes resistencias de los cuadros militares y las estrategias competitivas que surgen tanto de la izquierda legal como de la guerrilla terrorista Sendero Luminoso. Finalmente, se sostiene que el estilo personalista del nuevo gobierno no parece dirigirse a fortalecer la institucionalidad democrática en el país.


Luis Pásara is Director of the Centro de Estudios de Derecho y Sociedad (CEDYS) in Lima and a current Kellogg Institute Fellow. He holds a Doctorate in Law from the Catholic University of Peru and did post-graduate studies at the University of Wisconsin. His books are concerned with the socio-economic aspects of legal relations and the latest one covers the relationship between the judiciary and power structure in Peru (Jueces, justicia y poder en el Perú, 1982). He has published several articles on legal and social issues and is a political columnist for Caretas, the leading weekly magazine in Lima. This paper was originally presented at the Conference "Message from García: A New look at Peru", held at the School of International Relations, University of Southern California, November 2, 1985.


The Crisis in Bolivia

James Dunkerley and Rolando Morales

Working Paper #54 - December 1985

Abstract

This paper surveys political developments in Bolivia since the return to civilian government in October 1982 within a wider framework established by the National Revolution of 1952. Critical attention is paid to the dilemmas and eventual collapse of the UDP government in both political and economic spheres. Some summary remarks about the nature of political democracy in Bolivia are drawn against the background of the elections of July 1985 and the subsequent adoption of a policy of severe orthodox adjustment by the new regime of Victor Paz Estenssoro.

Resumen

Este estudio presenta un análisis del desarrollo político de Bolivia a partir del establecimiento de un gobierno civil en octubre de 1982. Nuestro enfoque más amplio hace referencia a las características de la Revolución Nacional de 1952. Se elabora un análisis crítico de los dilemas y el eventual colapso del gobierno de la UDP tanto dentro del terreno político como en lo económico. El ensayo concluye con algunas breves observaciones en cuanto a la naturaleza de la democracia política en Bolivia a la luz de las elecciones de julio de 1985 y la adopción por el nuevo régimen de Victor Paz Estenssoro de una política de estabilización ortodoxa.


James Dunkerley was a Faculty Fellow at the Kellogg Institute in 1985. He worked previously at the Universities of London and Liverpool. His publications include The Long War. Dictatorship and Revolution in El Salvador (London, 2nd edition 1985) and Rebellion in the Veins. Political Struggle in Bolivia, 1952-82 (London, 1984).

Rolando Morales Anaya was Vice-Minister of Finance for a short period in the UDP government. He teaches economics at the Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, and is President of the Bolivian College of Economists. His publications include Desarrollo y Pobreza en Bolivia (La Paz, 1984) and La Crisis Económica en Bolivia y su Impacto en las Condiciones de Vida de los Niños (La Paz, 1985).


The State and Planning in Nicaragua

David F. Ruccio

Working Paper #53 - December 1985

Abstract

The state and planning are key elements in most theories of and concrete attempts at transition. Nicaragua is no exception. This paper begins by investigating some of the major changes in the role of the state in Nicaraguan political economy under the Sandinistas. The second section focuses on the early attempts at state planning in Nicaragua. The third section presents some of the contradictory effects of the Nicaraguan state conceived to be the "center of accumulation." A short concluding section analyzes the most recent planning efforts and presents the specific implications of this analysis of the state and planning for the Nicaraguan transition.

Resumen

El estado y la planificación son elementos claves en muchas teorías y otros tantos intentos concretos de transición. Nicaragua no es ninguna excepción. En este ensayo se empieza por investigar algunos cambios en el papel del estado en la economía política nicaragüense bajo los Sandinistas. La segunda sección enfoca los primeros intentos de planificación estatal en Nicaragua. En la tercera sección estudiamos algunos de los efectos contradictorios del estado nicaragüense concebido como el "centro de acumulación". Analizamos, en una breve conclusión, los esfuerzos de planificación más recientes y presentamos las consecuencias específicas de nuestro análisis del estado y la planificación para la transición en Nicaragua.


David F. Ruccio is currently Assistant Professor of Economics, Director of the Latin American Area Studies Program, and Faculty Fellow of the Kellogg Institute at the University of Notre Dame. He has published articles on socialist planning and theories of development and recently co-edited (with Kwan Kim) Debt and Development in Latin America. His current research includes the theory and comparative empirical analysis of the state and planning in peripheral transitional economies and alternative approaches to external debt.

A revised version of this paper appeared in The Political Economy of Revolutionary Nicaragua, edited by Rose J. Spalding (Boston: Allen and Unwin, 1986).


Grass Roots Popular Movements And The Struggle For Democracy: Nova Iguaçu, 1974-1985

Scott Mainwaring

Working Paper #52 - December 1985

Abstract

Most analyses of the transition to democracy in Brazil have focused on the role of elites. This paper addresses what might be called the underside of the transition. Focusing on the case of Nova Iguaçu, this paper analyzes the role of grass roots popular movements in the struggle for democracy in Brazil, 1974-1985. The author addresses at length the extent to which grass roots movements contributed to the democratization process, and the dilemmas they faced as a result of this process. He also discusses the issue of change and continuity in the popular process, especially relative to the pre-'64 period. The paper concludes with an analysis of the likely prospects of grass roots movements in the near future.

Resumen

La mayoría de los análisis acerca de la transición a la democracia en Brasil se centran en el papel de las elites. Este trabajo trata sobre el papel de los movimientos urbanos populares en la transición. Concentrándose en el caso de Nova Iguaçu, este ensayo señala la importancia y los límites de los movimientos populares de base en la lucha por la democracia en Brasil, 1974-1985. El autor analiza el aporte de estos movimientos al proceso de democratización como también los dilemas que ellos enfrentaron en el curso de la apertura. Luego discute el problema de cambio y continuidad en el proceso popular, especialmente en relación al período previo a 1964. El ensayo concluye con un análisis de las perspectivas probables de los movimientos de base en un futuro cercano, bajo el nuevo régimen democrático.


Scott Mainwaring is Assistant Professor of Government and Member of the Kellogg Institute at Notre Dame. His first book, The Catholic Church and Politics in Brazil, 1916-1985, will be published by Stanford University Press in early 1986. He has written a number of articles on Argentina and Brazil.

This paper was published in Alfred Stepan, ed., Democratizing Brazil: Problems of Transition and Consolidation (Oxford University Press, 1989).

The author wishes to thank Elizabeth Allen, Ruth Cardoso, Peter Flynn, Margaret Keck, Paulo Krischke, Alfred Stepan, and various colleagues at CEDEC for their helpful suggestions.


The Decision to Adopt or Reject New Technologies: A Case Study of Agricultural Development Projects in Zaire

Mutombo Mpanya

Working Paper #51 - October 1985

Abstract

This paper seeks to examine the process by which African farmers arrive at their decisions to adopt or reject new agricultural techniques. In recent years, there has been a tendency among foreign project organizers to attribute the local farmers' decisions to socio-cultural factors. The farmers, on the other hand, explain their decisions in terms of perceived economic benefits. The author conducted a comparative analysis of the reception of proposed agricultural innovations from four development projects in the Kwango Kasai plateau of Zaire. The purpose of this study was to isolate variables affecting the local farmers' decisions and to determine their relative importance. The findings show that there is considerable interaction between socio-cultural and strictly economic concerns. On balance, however, economic considerations emerge as the most important factor.

Resumen

Este ensayo busca examinar el proceso por el cual los campesinos africanos llegan a sus decisiones de adoptar o rechazar técnicas agrícolas nuevas. En años recientes, ha habido una tendencia entre los organizadores de proyectos extranjeros a atribuir las decisiones de los campesinos de la localidad a factores socio-culturales. Los campesinos, por otra parte, explican sus decisiones en términos de los beneficios económicos percibidos. El autor condujo un análisis comparativo de la recepción de las innovaciones agrícolas propuestas desde cuatro proyectos de desarrollo en la maseta Kwango Kasai de Zaire. El propósito fue aislar los variables que afectan las decisiones de los campesinos locales y para determinar su importancia relativa. El estudio muestra que hay considerable interacción entre preocupaciones socio-culturales y preocupaciones estrictamente económicas. En balance, sin embargo, consideraciones económicas emergen como los factores más importantes.


Mutombo Mpanya is a native of Zaire. He received his Ph.D. in Planning from the School of Natural Resources at the University of Michigan. During the last twelve years he has been working with a number of international organizations, conducting research and evaluation studies of businesses, development projects and community-level programs in various African countries. He has taught in several North American universities, including the Universities of Michigan and Notre Dame and Stanford University. Currently Dr. Mpanya is a Fellow of the Kellogg Institute.


Gender, Class and 'Development' in Rural Coastal Ecuador

Lynne Phillips

Working Paper #50 - December 1985

Abstract

In this paper the author discusses the relationship between the situation of rural women and the development of agriculture within the specific context of agrarian reform in coastal Ecuador. The first half of the paper outlines the history of the changing sexual division of labour and the particular form of state intervention in coastal agriculture. The second half of the paper analyzes changes in four different factors of production affected by the agrarian reforms (land, technological inputs, credit and labour) as these, in turn, affect the farm or household. This analysis reveals both the contradictory effects of these changes on rural women and the nature of political struggles of rural women and men in this region.

Resumen

En esta monografía, la autora discute la relación entre la situación de la mujer rural y el desarrollo de la agricultura dentro del contexto específico de las reformas agrarias en la zona costeña del Ecuador. Bosqueja la historia de las transformaciones en la división del trabajo por sexo y la forma específica de la intervención del estado ecuatoriano en el agro costeño. Luego analiza, a nivel de la unidad de producción agrícola, cuatro factores de producción que fueron modificados por las reformas agrarias (la tierra, la tecnología, el crédito y el trabajo). Este análisis revela los efectos contradictorios de la reforma agraria para la mujer rural y también el carácter de las luchas de las mujeres y los hombres en el campo costeño.


Lynne Phillips received her Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Toronto. She is currently affiliated with the Centre for Research on Latin America and the Caribbean (CERLAC), York University, Toronto, as a post-doctoral fellow, and with the Planificación y Estudios Sociales (CEPLAES), Quito, Ecuador, as a visiting researcher studying rural women.

The research on which this paper is based was funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), the Centre for International Studies at the University of Toronto and the Canadian Association for Latin American and Caribbean Studies (CALACS).


Feminist Theory, State Policy, and Rural Women in Latin America
-A Rapporteur's Report -

Shelley Baxter

Working Paper #49 - December 1985

Abstract

This paper is a rapporteur's report from the Workshop "Feminist Theory, State Policy, and Rural Women in Latin America," sponsored by the Kellogg Institute of the University of Notre Dame in February 1985. The Workshop brought together new advances in feminist theory and recent research on rural development in Latin America. This report summarizes the presentations and issues raised under five broad themes and concludes with a discussion of possible future research topics. The Workshop's major themes were: (1) The implications for rural women of the Latin American agrarian reform experiences; (2) evaluating success and failure of women's subsistence agriculture projects; (3) integrating micro and macro variables of rural women's migration patterns; (4) state rural development models and policy, and (5) new advances in feminist theory-factors contributing to feminist consciousness in Latin American women.

Resumen

Este ensayo es un informe de los acuerdos del Taller "Teoría Feminista, Política Estatal y la Mujer Rural en América Latina," patrocinado por Kellogg Institute de la Universidad de Notre Dame en febrero de 1985. El Taller recopiló los últimos progresos en la teoría feminista y la reciente investigación sobre el desarrollo rural en América Latina. Este informe resume las presentaciones y problemáticas estipuladas bajo cinco temas globales y concluye con una discusión de posibles tópicos de investigación en el futuro. Los principales temas del Taller fueron: (1) Las implicaciones para las mujeres rurales de las experiencias de la reforma agraria latinoamericana; (2) evaluación de éxitos y fracasos de los proyectos agrícolas de subsistencia para las mujeres; (3) integración de variables micro y macro de los modelos de migración de las mujeres; (4) los modelos estatales de desarrollo rural y la política; (5) nuevos avances en la teoría feminista-factores que contribuyen a una conciencia feminista en las mujeres latinoamericanas.


Shelley Baxter is a graduate student in the Department of Economics, University of Notre Dame.

Special acknowledgements are extended to Ann Clark for consultation and many helpful suggestions.


From Catholic Action to Liberation Theology: The Historical Process of the Laity in Latin America in the Twentieth Century

Ana María Bidegain

Working Paper #48 - November 1985

Abstract

This paper presents the historic process of the Latin American laity in this century, taking the case of Catholic Action, especially among the university youth. The author attempts to demonstrate the role played by these movements in the process of pastoral and theological renewal in recent years in Latin America. The study consists of three parts: l. The birth of Catholic Action as papal policy, signifying a break in the history of the Church through the participation of the laity in the apostolic hierarchy. 2. The implanting of Catholic Action in Latin America in the face of the development of social and political movements inspired by anarchism, socialism, and communism. 3. The transformation of Catholic Action and the birth of Liberation Theology.

Resumen

Este trabajo presenta el proceso histórico del laicado latinoamericano en el presente siglo, tomando el caso de la Acción Católica, especialmente a nivel de la juventud universitaria. La autora intenta mostrar el papel desempeñado por estos movimientos en el proceso de renovación pastoral y teológica en los últimos años en América Latina. 1. El trabajo consta de tres partes. El nacimiento de la Acción Católica como política papal, significando un corte en la historia de la Iglesia por la participación del laicado en el apostolado jerárquico. 2. La implantación de la Acción Católica en América Latina frente al desarrollo de movimientos sociales y políticos inspirados en el anarquismo, el socialismo y el comunismo. 3. La transformación de la Accíon Católica y el nacimiento de la Teología de la Liberación.


Ana María Bidegain, Assistant Professor at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, is Co-ordinator of the Colombia-Venezuela area of the Comisión de Historia de la Iglesia en América Latina (CEHILA). She is the author of Nacionalismo, militarismo y dominación en América Latina (Bogotá 1983), Iglesia, pueblo y política (Bogotá 1985), and Así actuaron los cristianos en la historia de América Latina (Botogá 1985). She was a Fellow at the Kellogg Institute in the Spring 1985 Semester.


Iglesia Peruana: Cambio y Continuidad Naturaleza y Sentido de Su Transformacion

Catalina Romero

Working Paper #47 - November 1985

Abstract

This paper presents an analysis of the changes the Peruvian Catholic Church has undergone in the last three decades. It shows how the Peruvian Church has changed its social practices and its vision of social reality, leading to new pastoral practices and theological conceptions. The first part of the paper briefly traces three main periods of change since the l950s, then discusses the current debate on liberation theology. The second part analyzes the meaning of these developments, arguing that they must be understood as a profound change in the way the Church understands its mission. The third and final part discusses three of the most important elements of change: base communities, theology, and the institution's decentralization.

Resumen

Este trabajo presenta un análisis de la Iglesia Católica en la sociedad peruana en las últimas tres décadas en que se ha convertido en un factor fundamental del cambio social y elemento de identidad cultural. La autora hace énfasis en el análisis de los cambios internos en la sociedad e Iglesia peruana para explicar la radicalidad, naturaleza y consecuencias del cambio. La primera parte del trabajo sitúa la naturaleza de los cambios de la Iglesia desde l950 como resultado de la incorporación en la pastoral y en la teología de una práctica social y un cambio en la visión cristiana de la realidad social. Luego analiza la naturaleza y el sentido de los cambios ocurridos y termina señalando: las comunidades cristianas, la teología y el marco de apertura institucional para acoger las novedades, como los tres factores que han determinado el cambio.


Catalina Romero de Iguiñiz is a research scholar at the Centro de Estudios Bartolomé de las Casas and Professor of Social Science at the Universidad Católica del Perú. During the Spring semester, 1983 she was a Fellow of the Kellogg Institute and a Visiting Professor in the Sociology Department at the University of Notre Dame.


Democracy and Property

Joseph Ramos

Working Paper #46 - November 1985

Abstract

This paper examines the relations between democracy and property in the context of less developed countries, with special reference to Chile. Starting from the premise that there is an essential distinction between the legitimacy of the institution of private property and the legitimacy of its present distribution, the author argues that property ownership is only one of the sources of power in society and, moreover, that highly concentrated distributions of wealth are due to historical circumstances rather than intrinsic to the nature of property itself. The paper's main contention is that an economic system based on the market, with widely diffused private property, is the economic structure most in accord with a pluralistic democracy.

Resumen

Este ensayo examina las relaciones entre la democracia y la propiedad en el contexto de los países menos desarrollados, con especial referencia a Chile. Partiendo de la premisa que hay una distinción esencial entre la legitimidad de la institución de la propiedad privada y la legitimidad de su distribución presente, el autor plantea que la posesión de propiedad es sólo una de las fuentes de poder en la sociedad y por lo tanto que las distribuciones de riqueza altamente concentradas se deben a circunstancias históricas y no a la naturaleza intrínsica de la propiedad. El argumento principal del ensayo es que un sistema económico basado en el mercado, con propiedad privada ampliamente difusa, es la estructura económica más en acuerdo con una democracia pluralista.


Joseph Ramos is an economist (Ph.D. Columbia 1968) with 17 years of teaching and consulting experience in Latin America. He is currently with the United Nation's ECLA in Santiago, Chile. His work has generally been in macroeconomics (employment, stabilization and adjustment policies) and he also has a long-standing interest in Catholic social teaching. His latest publication was a book published by ECLA entitled Estabilización y líberalización económica en el Cono Sur (UN, 1984, Santiago). During the Spring semester, 1985, Dr. Ramos was a Faculty Fellow of the Kellogg Institute, University of Notre Dame.


Industrialization, Migration and the Informal Sector in Manaus

Leo Despres

Working Paper #45 - July 1985

Abstract

Through the institution of the Free Trade Zone and a strong program of fiscal incentives, the Brazilian government has stimulated significant urban and industrial growth in Manaus, a port city in the Central Amazon. As a result of this "development program," Manaus' economy now combines more traditional with more contemporary forms of capitalist organization. A preliminary analysis of field data collected in 1984 suggests that the productive regimes which attach to the more traditional forms of capitalist organization allocate a higher value to labor than those that attach to the modern, so-called high-tech, sectors of the economy. Thus, with industrial development, Manaus has witnessed a significant growth of the informal sectors of the economy. Structurally, however, the formal and the informal sectors are interdependent. The economic well-being of workers in the informal sector is as dependent upon the low wages paid to workers in the formal sector as are the industries of the latter dependent upon the cheap sources of consumption goods which the informal sector provides, in order to continue to pay low wages to the workers they employ. These data lend support to those theorists who have argued that the formal/informal dichotomy tends to obscure the systemic structural features of developmental change. In respect to labor and households as economic units, these data also suggest perhaps that a theory which conceptualizes survival strategies as constrained decisions among a relatively wide variety of alternative possibilities in different economic sectors may offer conceptual advantages. Such a theory would need to acknowledge the possibility of situations in which formal sector employment in "high-tech" industries is not necessarily preferred to non-industrial employment.

Resumo

Através da instituição de Zona Franca e de intenso programa de incentivos fiscais, o governo brasileiro estimulou significativo crescimento urbano e industrial em Manaus, uma cidade portuária da Amazônia central. Como resultado desse "programa de desenvolvimento," a economia de Manaus, atualmente, combina formas de organização capitalista tradicionais com as mais contemproáneas. A análise preliminar dos dados de campo, coletados em 1984, sugere que: em termos de setores de economia, os regimes productivos ligados a formas mais tradicionais de organização capitalista, atribuem maior valor ao trabalho do que àqueles regimes mais modernos, também chamados de alta-tecnologia ("hi-tech"). Assim, com o desenvolvimento industrial, Manaus testemunhou acentuado crescimento dos setores informais da economia. Porém, os setores formal e informal são estruturalmente interdependentes. O bem-estar econômico dos trabalhadores do setor informal é tão dependente dos baixos salários pagos aos trabalhadores pelo setor formal, quanto são as indústrias deste setor dependentes de fontes baratas de bens de consumo, fornecidas pelo setor informal, a fim de que tais indústrias continuem a pagar baixos salários a seus empregados. Esso dados conferem apoio àqueles teóricos que sustentam que a dicotomia formal-informal tende a obscurecer os contornos sistemático-estruturais da mudança provocada pelo desenvolvimento. Quanto a trabalho e família como unidades eonônomicas, os dados também sugere que, a teoria que concebe as estratégias de sobrevência como sujeitas à tomada de decisões, entre uma relativamente vasta gama de possíveis alternativas, em diferentes setores da economia, talvez fique em posição de vantagem. Tal teoria necessitaria conhecer a possibliladade de situações em que o emprego no setor formal, em indústrias de alta tecnologia não é necessariamente preferido o emprego não-industrial.


Leo Despres is a Fellow of the Kellogg Institute and Professor of Anthropology at the University of Notre Dame. He has held teaching posts at Ohio Wesleyan, Washington University (St. Louis) and Case Western University. His major research projects include culture change and power structure in a Midwestern community; national politics in Guyana; and studies on ethnicity in Guyana and the West Indies. Among his major publications are Cultural Pluralism and Nationalist Politics in British Guiana and Ethnicity and Resource Competition in Plural Societies.

The data presented here were collected during the course of fieldwork conducted between June and December 1984, in respect to industrialization and the formation of working class culture in Manaus, Brazil. This research was made possible by a grant from the National Science Foundation (BNS 83, 17543). The author wishes to express his gratitude to the Instituto Universitario de Pesquisas do Rio de Janeiro for its assistance in facilitating the research. He is also extremely grateful to Rosalvo Machado Bentes and his colleagues at the Núcleo de Altos Estudos Amazônicos, Universidade Federal do Pará, and at the Universidade Federal do Amazonas, for making available a portion of the data collected by Professor Bentes in his study of migration to Manaus. He also wants to thank Drs. Regis S. De Castro Andrade, Paulo J. Krischke, and others of the Central de Estudos de Cultura Contemporanea in São Paulo, Dra. Lorissa Lomnitz (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Diana De Treville (University of Notre Dame) and members of the Kellogg Institute for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this paper.


Peasants, Pedagogy, Productivity-Paraguay

Kenneth P. Jameson

Working Paper #44 - July 1985

Abstract

An outstanding characteristic of development efforts in Latin America since the 1950s has been the extension of educational activities to new sectors of the population, in particular to the rural zones. It is unclear what effect these efforts have had, for even from a neo-classical perspective, the empirical evidence on the effect of educational attainment is at best ambiguous.

Paraguay participated in this expansion of education. This paper examines the evidence of its effect in the rural areas, relying primarily upon an extensive small farm survey from the eastern region of Paraguay.

The problem of education and rural development is initially placed in the context of three competing views: the neo-classical which sees its effect through increased farm productivity; the Chayanovian which would see education as peripheral to peasant agriculture; and the social differentiation perspective which would see its contribution in terms of increasing social differentiation in the country.

The empirical results find support for the significance of education in rural Paraguay. It does have a small but significant effect on farm productivity, and more importantly it does contribute to social differentiation in the country.

These conclusions are made more salient by the present fiscal pressures on Latin American countries which imply a real reduction in education expenditures for most of them.

Resumen

Una de las caracteristicas más importantes del desarrollo económico Latinoamericano desde las década de los cincuenta, ha sido la progresiva incorporación al proceso educacional de nuevos segmentos poblacionales y en particular de las zonas rurales. Sin embargo, los efectos de estos esfuerzos no son claros. La evidencia empirica que se desprende de los estudios realizados desde una perspectiva neoclásica, demuestra que los beneficios obtenidos del aumento de la educación son ambiguos.

Paraguay ha participado del proceso de desarrollo educacional. Este estudio examina los efectos de este proceso en las areas rurales, y se basa principalmente en encuestas realizadas a pequeños predios de la región del este del Paraguay. La relación entre el problema educacional y el desarrollo rural se situa en el contexto de tres visiones alternativas: la neoclásica, que entiende sus efectos a través de aumentos en la productividad agricola; la Chayanovian, que ve a la educación como un elemento periférico al campesinado rural y la perpectiva de diferenciación social, que entiende que la educación contribuye a aumentar la diferenciación social en el pais.

Los resultados empíricos avalan la importancia de la educación en las zonas rurales del Paraguay. Esta tiene un pequeño pero estadísticamente significativo efecto en la productividad agricola y más importante aun, contribuye a aumentar la diferenciación social de las zonas rurales, especialmente entre aquellos con más de seis años de educación.

Estas conclusiones son de especial relevancia cuando se constatan las presiones que actualmente se ejercen sobre el persupuesto fiscal en los paises Latinoamericanos, lo que implica una reducción del gasto real en educación en la mayoria de estos paises.


Kenneth Jameson is Faculty Fellow of the Kellogg Institute for International Studies and Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Notre Dame.

This paper is part of a cross-country study of rural productivity and education and has also been part of a collaboration with the ECIEL study on the same topic.


Latin American Structuralism: A Methodological Perspective

Kenneth P. Jameson

Working Paper #43 - July 1985

Abstract

Latin American structuralism has played a central role in the debates on economic development theory and policy since the 1950s. The career of Raúl Prebisch has mirrored the trajectory of structuralism and can provide it an historical context. After noting the importance of structuralism, the article isolates its main tenets. It then places Latin American structuralism within the methodological tradition of structuralism which includes writers such as Piaget, Levi-Strauss and Chomsky in other disciplines. Methodologically the key to the success of Latin American structuralism is its ability to isolate a deep structure of the international economy and to center its analysis around it. The understanding of the domestic economy and of shorter-run policy problems is less satisfactory. After a brief eclipse during the late 1970s, Latin American structuralism is currently a vital mode of understanding development problems, in this case through its marriage with a more formal, mathematical approach originating in the U.S.

Resumen

Desde la década del '50 el estructuralismo latinoamericano ha desempeñado un rol central en los debates sobre política y teoría del desarrollo económico. Las obras de Raúl Prebisch no sólo reflejan la trayectoría del estructuralismo, sino que a la vez proporcionan el contexto histórico para analizarlo. Después de señalar la importancia del estructuralismo latinoamericano, este estudio destaca sus componentes claves, situándolo en la tradición metodológica de escritores como Piaget, Levi-Strauss y Chomsky en otras diciplinas. Metodológicamente, el éxito del estructualismo latinoamericano se basa en la capacidad de aislar los componentes estructurales de la economía internacional para luego centrar su análisis en torno a ellos. Sin embargo, su capacidad de entender los problemas asociados a las economías domésticas y a las políticas económicas de corto plazo es menos satisfactoría. Después de un breve silencio a fines de la década del '70, el estructuralismo latinoamericano ofrece nuevamente una manera fundamental para comprender los problemas del desarrollo, esta vez, ligándose y utilizando los aportes más modelísticos y formales originados en Estados Unidos.


Kenneth Jameson is Faculty Fellow of the Kellogg Institute for International Studies and Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Notre Dame. His publications in the area of economic methodology include An Inquiry Into the Poverty of Economics and Directions in Economic Development.

The author wishes to thank colleagues David Ruccio, René Cortázar, Alejandro Foxley, Linda Hudgins and Charles Wilber for their valuable comments, though they bear no responsibility for remaining problems.


Three Rationalities in Development Decisions

Denis Goulet

Working Paper #42 - June 1985

Abstract

Development performance is, in most cases, disappointing. Numerous obstacles, domestic and international, impede success. This paper argues that, in addition to these, bad development decision-making contributes to failure. The Author analyzes how three distinct rationalities, or basic approaches to logic, converge in decision-making arenas. These are technological, political, and ethical rationality. Each has a distinctive goal and a peculiar animating spirit or basic procedure. Problems arise because each rationality approaches the other two in reductionist fashion, seeking to impose its view of goals and procedures on the decision-making process. The result is technically sound decisions which are politically unfeasible or morally unacceptable or, in other cases, ethically sound choices which are technically inefficient or politically impossible, or again, politically sound decisions which sin on ethical or technical grounds.

After analyzing the three rationalities, the Author illustrates their workings in three concrete sectors of contemporary Brazilian development strategy: a dam construction project in the impoverished Northeast region, a new approach to municipal government in greater São Paulo, and an ambitious program of incentives aimed at diversifying agricultural production in the Northeast. The conclusion reached is that a new model of mutually respectful-and not reductionist-dialogue among the three rationalities is needed in arenas of developmental decision-making.

Sumario

As realizações, em materia de desenvolvimento, são quase sempre decepcionantes. Existem um sem número de obstáculos que impedem o êxito. O argumento do presente artigo é que, além dêstes obstáculos, as más decisões contribuem para o fracasso. O autor analisa como três racionalidades distintas, ou seja, três padrões de lógica, convergem para o campo da tomada de decisão. São elas: a racionalidade tecnológica, política, e ética. Cada uma tem um objetivo particular e um espírito animador ou um procedimento próprio. Problemas surgem porque cada racionalidade aborda as outras duas de maneira reducionista; isto é, cada racionalidade tenta impôr sua visão dos objetivos e seu espírito, no proceso de decisão. O resultado, então, é uma decisão que, se é bôa no plano técnico, é falha, política ou eticamente falando; se aceitável moralmente, é deficiente na dimensão política ou técnica; ou, finalmente, se politicamente válida, é falha do lado técnico ou ético.

Após analisar as três racionalidades, o autor ilustra sua operação em três setores concretos da atual estrategia brasileira de desenvolvimento. Os setores abordados são: a construção da represa do rio São Francisco em Itaparica, a experiência de governo municipal em Diadema, no grande São Paulo, e o programa de novos incentivos ligados ao Projeto Nordeste e destinado a diversificar a agricultura naquela região. A conclusão a qual chega o autor é que um novo modelo de diálogo interrelacionado, e não reducionista, é necesário para que as três racionalidades produzam bôas decisões no setor de desenvolvimento.


Denis Goulet is O'Neill Professor in Education for Justice and a member of the Department of Economics and the Kellogg Institute for International Studies at the University of Notre Dame.

He holds Master's degrees in Philosophy (1956) and Social Planning (1960), and a Doctorate in Political Science from the University of São Paulo (1963). He has held visiting professorships in interdisciplinary studies on the ethics of development at the University of Regina (Canada), IRFED (France), the University of Pernambuco (Brazil), Indiana University and the University of California (USA).

He is the author of numerous books and professional articles including: Etica do Desenvolvimento (São Paulo: Livraria Duas Cidades, 1966), The Cruel Choice (New York: Atheneum Publishers, 1971. Reissued 1985 by University Press of America [New York]), A New Moral Order (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1974), The Uncertain Promise: Value Conflicts in Technology Transfer (New York: IDOC/North America, 1977), Mexico: Development Strategies for the Future (University of Notre Dame Press, 1983).

This paper grows out of current research on "Incentive Systems as Policy Instruments for Equitable Development."


Rural Class Structure in Mexico: New Developments, New Perspectives

María de los Angeles Crummett

Working Paper #41 - May 1985

Abstract

This paper examines a number of criteria by which to categorize rural households into distinct socioeconomic classes. Based on the author's sample survey of 211 households in three agricultural regions of the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico, the study argues that an analysis of rural class structure must focus not only on access to the means of production and the extent of participation in the labor market but also on internal structural features of domestic units such as household size, generational composition, and the sex and age division of labor. Statistical tests strongly support the thesis that considerations of household structure and organization sharpen and enrich the concept of class. The results also define and distinguish three main class types in the survey regions-commercial, subsistence, and landless households.

Resumen

Este trabajo analiza un conjunto de criterios que permiten llegar a una clasificación de tipos de productores agrícolas. Basado en una encuesta de 211 unidades de producción en tres regiones rurales del Estado de Aguascalientes, Mexico, el trabajo muestra que un analisis de clase debe centrarse, tanto en la posesión de los medios de producción y en el grado de participación en el mercado de trabajo, como en la estructura interna de la unidad incluyendo el tamaño de ella, la composición generacional y la división de trabajo por sexo y edad. Los resultos estadísticos apoyan la tesis de que la incorporación de variables referidas a la organización y estructura de la unidad facilitan y enriquecen la explicación sobre el concepto de clase. Los resultados también permiten definir y distinguir tres principales clases en las regiones de la encuesta: los productores comerciales, los productores de subsistencia y los trabajadores sin tierra.


María de los Angeles Crummett received her Ph.D. in Economics from the New School for Social Research in 1984. During 1984-1985 she was a Faculty Fellow of the Kellogg Institute and an Assistant Faculty Fellow in the Department of Economics at the University of Notre Dame. The author wishes to thank Ronald Berg and Carmen Diana Deere for their many useful comments on an earlier version of this paper and Caroline Domingo for her editorial assistance. Research on this paper was supported by grants from the Social Science Research Council, the Inter-American Foundation, and the Business and Professional Women's Foundation.


After Authoritarianism: Political Alternatives

Alejandro Foxley

Working Paper #40-May 1985

Abstract

This paper explores some of the factors that contributed to the increasingly antagonistic character of development in Chile during the twenty-five years previous to the military coup of 1973. Special attention is given to the nature of the process of generating ideas, to the role that intellectuals played in the formation of ideology, and to the polarized and mutually exclusive character of the programmatic proposals of the main political parties in Chile.

The problem of the quality of politics is discussed. The consolidation of a political class relatively closed and little sensitive to the real agenda of the problems that confronted Chilean society in this period introduced distortions in the determination of objectives, in the forms of representation of interests, and in the resolution of conflicts.

The second part of the paper analyzes the options open for the future in the context of a democratization of Chilean society. The discussion focuses on the possible forms of politics, defined as types of relation between the political parties, the state and the social organizations.

Resumen

Este trabajo explora algunos de los factores que contribuyeron al caracter cada vez más antagónico del desarrollo de Chile durante las veinticinco años previos al golpe militar de 1973. Especial atención se da a la naturaleza del proceso de generación de ideas, al rol que jugaron los intelectuales en la ideologización, y al carácter polarizador y mutuamente excluyente de las propuestas programáticas de los principales partidos politícos en Chile.

Se discute el problema de la calidad de la política. La consolidación de una clase política relativamente cerrada y poco sensible a la agenda real de problemas que enfrentaba la sociedad chilena en este periodo introdujo distorsiónes en la determinación de objetivos, en las formas de representación de intereses y de resolución de conflictos.

La segunda parte del trabajo analiza las opciones abiertas a futuro en el contexto de una democratización de la sociedad chilena. La discusión se centra en las formas posibles de la política, definidas como los tipos de relación entre los partidos políticos, el estado y las organizaciónes sociales.


Alejandro Foxley holds the Helen Kellogg Institute Chair of International Development and is a Professor of Economics at the University of Notre Dame. He is currently writing a book on economic and political alternatives in Chile, supported by a Guggenheim fellowship. His recent publications include "Vulnerable Groups under Recessionary Conditions: The Case of Children and the Young in Chile," with D. Raczynski (in World Development, 1984) and "Después del monetarismo" in A. Foxley (Ed.), Reconstrucción económica para la democracia, (Santiago: Ed. Aconcagua, 1984). He is President of CIEPLAN (Corporación de Investigaciones Económicas para Latinoamérica.)

This paper was prepared for the conference on "Economic Development and Democracy," in honor of Albert Hirschman, sponsored by the Kellogg Institute of the University of Notre Dame, April 1984. The author wishes to thank various colleagues from CIEPLAN, and Paul Drake, Albert Hirschman, Guillermo O'Donnell and Alex Wilde for their helpful comments. The translation from Spanish was done by J. Kennedy and the editing by G. Steege. Their help is greatly appreciated.


Industrial Policy and Industrialization in South Korea: 1961-1982: Lessons on Industrial Policies for Other Developing Countries

Kwan S. Kim

Working Paper #39 - January 1985

Abstract

This study reviews in depth Korea's industrial development policies and their impacts on the pattern of industrialization during the first two decades since the beginning of the First Five-Year Development Plan in l962. It examines how industrial policies have evolved, specifically focusing on how Korea's industrial policy frameworks have changed in response to changes in economic conditions in the world as well as in the domestic economy. In the analysis, the concept of industrial policy is delineated in terms of its objectives and choice of policy instruments as well as the mechanisms for policy formulation and implementation.

It is found that Korea's industrial development has overwhelmingly been guided by industrial policy which was well-articulatd in design and efficiently executed. In particular, evidence indicates that the overall macroeconomic policies affecting the pattern of industrial development have been effectively and consistently orchestrated with sector-targeted development policies. The study then concludes with a summary of the main findings and an evaluation of the various factors contributing to Korea's success.

Resumen

Este estudio analiza en profundidad la política de desarrollo industrial en Korea y sus impactos sobre los modelos de industrialización durante las dos primeras décadas a partir del Plan Quinquenal de Desarrollo comenzado en l962. Examina la evolución de la politica industrial, especialmente lo relacionado con su cambio en respuesta a los cambios de las condiciones de las economias mundial y nacional. En este trabajo el concepto de política industrial está delineado en términos de sus objetivos y escogencia de mecanismos políticos de formulación e implementación.

Se deduce que el desarrollo industrial de Korea ha sido totalmente guiado por la política industrial la cual fué bien articulada en su elaboración y eficientemente ejecutada. En particular la evidencia indica que toda la politica macroeconomica que afecta el modelo de desarrollo industrial, ha sido efectiva y consistentemente estructurada con politicas de desarrollo sectorial. El estudio concluye con un resumen de los principales resultados y una evaluación de los diferentes factores que contribuyeron al éxito de Korea.


Kwan S. Kim is Associate Professor of Economics and Faculty Fellow of the Kellogg Institute at the University of Notre Dame. He has occasionally served as an economic consultant for governments of developing countries and for international agencies. He has published extensively in the areas of trade and development, planning and industrialization, with a special interest in East Africa, East Asia and, recently, Mexico. He is currently preparing a monograph on Development Strategies, comparing South Korea and Mexico.

This project was initially supported by a seed-money grant from the Helen Kellogg Institute for International Studies at the University of Notre Dame, and later by a summer grant from the United Nations Industrial Development Organization. Appreciation is due to a number of colleagues of the Nacional Financiera/UNIDO Office in Mexico, the Kellogg Institute, and the Korean Economic Association in Seoul for many helpful comments. Special thanks go to Caroline Domingo for carefully reading through the manuscript. The views expressed in this paper are solely those of the author and should not be attributed to any organizations.


 

INSIDE KELLOGG

       
 

Ford Program

Varieties of Democracy

Latin American/North America Church Concerns

Notre Dame Award

Kellogg Faculty Fellows

Visiting Fellows Program

Faculty Research

Working Groups

Undergraduate Student Programs

Graduate Student Programs

International Development Studies Minor

Latin American Studies Minor

Institute Publications

Working Papers

K-12 Resources

Traveling Trunks

Contact Us

 

 

The Kellogg Institute promotes scholarship, learning, and linkages that address issues of critical importance to our world. At the center of our interdisciplinary community’s work are two key themes: democratization and human development. 

 
Research Projects Outreach Faculty Students About