Acridine


Periasamy, N.
The T3(Π,Π*) state of acridine.
Chem. Phys. Lett. 99: 322-5 (1983)

Acridine
Solvent : 2-PrOH

wave length at maximum = 983 ± 5; 440 ± 1 nm

Triplet state population method: Pulsed laser photolysis


Periasamy, N.
The T3(Π,Π*) state of acridine.
Chem. Phys. Lett. 99: 322-5 (1983)

Acridine
Solvent : Acetonitrile

wave length at maximum = 978 ± 2; 434 ± 1 nm

Triplet state population method: Pulsed laser photolysis


Mitchell, M.B.; Smith, G.R.; Jansen, K.; Guillory, W.A.
The infrared and visible absorption spectra of the lowest triplet state of acridine isolated in an argon matrix.
Chem. Phys. Lett. 63: 475-8 (1979)

Acridine
Solvent : Argon, 13 K

wave length at maximum = 425.1 nm

Triplet state population method: Continuous wave laser excitation
Comments: Infrared vibrational structure also observed


Kira, A.; Koizumi, M.
Photochemical reaction between acridine and acridan in the presence and in the absence of oxygen. II. Studies by the flash technique.
Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 40: 2486-92 (1967)

Acridine
Solvent : Benzene

wave length (nm) at maximum, extinction coefficient = 440, 80000c

Triplet state population method: Flash photolysis
Extinction coefficient estimation method: Singlet depletion
Comments: Delay 93 μs


Kellmann, A.; Lindqvist, L.
Flash-photolytic detection of triplet acridine formed by energy transfer from biacetyl.
Proc. of Internat. Symposium on Triplet State, Beirut, Lebanon, 1967, p.439-45

Acridine
Solvent : Benzene

wave length (nm) at maximum, extinction coefficient = 520a, 2000a
440, 25000
435, 12000a
375a, 3000a
355a, 10000a
340a, 7000a

Triplet state population method: Flash photolysis
Extinction coefficient estimation method: Total depletion
Lifetime = 104 micro sec.
Comments: Uncertain correction of estimated peaks for SD


Bensasson, R.V.; Land, E.J.
Triplet-triplet extinction coefficients via energy transfer.
Trans. Faraday Soc. 67: 1904-15 (1971)

Acridine
Solvent : Benzene

wave length (nm) at maximum, extinction coefficient = 440, 24300

Triplet state population method: Pulse radiolysis
Extinction coefficient estimation method: Energy transfer
Comments: ε relative to benzophenone ketyl radical in cyclohexane (εmax = 3700 L mol−1 cm−1); ε obtained from a simultaneous least squares fit of data from several compounds making use of cyclohexane to benzene εmax ratios of 1.83 for naphthalene and 1.45 for anthracene


Kellmann, A.
Intersystem crossing and internal conversion quantum yields of acridine in polar and nonpolar solvents.
J. Phys. Chem. 81: 1195-8 (1977)

Acridine
Solvent : Benzene

wave length (nm) at maximum, extinction coefficient = 442, 27000

Triplet state population method: Flash photolysis
Extinction coefficient estimation method: Total depletion


Kasama, K.; Kikuchi, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Uji-ie, K.; Nishida, Y.; Kokubun, H.
Relaxation mechanism of excited acridine in nonreactive solvents.
J. Phys. Chem. 85: 1291-6 (1981)

Acridine
Solvent : Benzene, 296 K

wave length at maximum = 990; 870a; 781a; 699a; 518a; 440 nm

Triplet state population method: Pulsed laser photolysis
Comments: Shoulder at 415 nm


Goerner, H.
Triplet states of phenylethylenes in solution. Energies, lifetimes, and absorption spectra of 1,1-diphenyl-, triphenyl-, and tetraphenylethylene triplets.
J. Phys. Chem. 86: 2028-35 (1982)

Acridine
Solvent : Benzene, 298 K

wave length at maximum = 430 nm

Triplet state population method: Pulsed laser photolysis


Periasamy, N.
The T3(Π,Π*) state of acridine.
Chem. Phys. Lett. 99: 322-5 (1983)

Acridine
Solvent : Benzene

wave length at maximum = 980 ± 2; 442 ± 1 nm

Triplet state population method: Pulsed laser photolysis


van Zeyl, P.H.M.; Varma, C.A.G.O.; Vroege, G.
Resonance Raman scattering from triplet states of acridine and anthracene.
Chem. Phys. Lett. 105: 127-33 (1984)

Acridine
Solvent : Benzene

wave length at maximum = 440a nm

Triplet state population method: Pulsed laser photolysis


Periasamy, N.
The T3(Π,Π*) state of acridine.
Chem. Phys. Lett. 99: 322-5 (1983)

Acridine
Solvent : CCl4

wave length at maximum = 981 ± 2; 442 ± 1 nm

Triplet state population method: Pulsed laser photolysis


Land, E.J.
Extinction coefficients of triplet-triplet transitions.
Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 305: 457-71 (1968)

Acridine
Solvent : Cyclohexane

wave length (nm) at maximum, extinction coefficient = 432.5, 26300

Triplet state population method: Pulse radiolysis
Extinction coefficient estimation method: Energy transfer
Comments: ε relative to biphenyl in cyclohexane (ε361.3 = 35400 L mol−1 cm−1); author reported mean of 2 measurements (this one and another with a different ref. cmpd.) as 28800 ± 7200 L mol−1 cm−1


Land, E.J.
Extinction coefficients of triplet-triplet transitions.
Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 305: 457-71 (1968)

Acridine
Solvent : Cyclohexane

wave length (nm) at maximum, extinction coefficient = 432.5, 31300

Triplet state population method: Pulse radiolysis
Extinction coefficient estimation method: Energy transfer
Comments: ε relative to naphthalene in cyclohexane (ε412.5 = 22600 L mol−1 cm−1); author reported mean of 2 measurements (this one and another with a different ref. cmpd.) as 28800 ± 7200 L mol−1 cm−1


Bensasson, R.V.; Land, E.J.
Triplet-triplet extinction coefficients via energy transfer.
Trans. Faraday Soc. 67: 1904-15 (1971)

Acridine
Solvent : Cyclohexane

wave length (nm) at maximum, extinction coefficient = 432.5, 31500

Triplet state population method: Pulse radiolysis
Extinction coefficient estimation method: Energy transfer
Comments: ε relative to benzophenone ketyl radical in cyclohexane (εmax = 3700 L mol−1 cm−1); reference ε obtained by starting from εmax = 3220 L mol−1 cm−1 for this ketyl radical in water and assuming the f of the ketyl radical is independent of solvent; final ε obtained from a simultaneous least squares fit to data from several compounds


Kira, A.; Kato, S.; Koizumi, M.
Studies of the photoreduction of acridine in ethanol by the flash technique.
Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 39: 1221-7 (1966)

Acridine
Solvent : EtOH

wave length at maximum = 440 nm

Triplet state population method: Flash photolysis
Comments: Broad absorption < 290 nm also assigned to triplet; a band at 520 nm, which had been assigned to the triplet in water [61E008], was seen to decay at a different rate and was not assigned to the triplet in EtOH


Kikuchi, K.; Kokubun, H.; Koizumi, M.
Studies on triplet energy transfer by means of an emission-absorption flash technique. II. Mixed triplet-triplet annihilation in ethanol.
Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 44: 1527-34 (1971)

Acridine
Solvent : EtOH

wave length (nm) at maximum, extinction coefficient = 440, 18500

Triplet state population method: Flash photolysis
Extinction coefficient estimation method: Energy transfer
Comments: Triplet ET from eosin and proflavine; ε relative to eosin in EtOH (ε580 = 9400 L mol−1 cm−1) and proflavine in EtOH (ε550 = 11000 L mol−1 cm−1)


Kikuchi, K.; Uji-ie, K.; Miyashita, Y.; Kokubun, H.
Intersystem crossing processes of acridine.
Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 50: 879-82 (1977)

Acridine
Solvent : EtOH

wave length at maximum = 985; 870; 778; 440 nm

Triplet state population method: Flash photolysis
Comments: Most intense peak at 440 nm


Romashov, L.V.; Borovkova, V.A.; Kiryukhin, Yu.I.; Bagdasar'yan, Kh.S.
Determination of the extinction coefficient for triplet-triplet absorption from the kinetics of triplet-triplet energy transfer.
High Energy Chem. 12: 132-4 (1978)

Acridine
Solvent : EtOH

wave length (nm) at maximum, extinction coefficient = 440, 22500

Triplet state population method: Pulsed laser photolysis
Extinction coefficient estimation method: Energy transfer
Lifetime = 14 micro sec.
Comments: ε relative to Methylene Blue cation (ε860 = 27000 L mol−1 cm−1); solvent and temperature assumed


Greene, B.I.; Hochstrasser, R.M.; Weisman, R.B.
Picosecond transient spectroscopy of molecules in solution.
J. Chem. Phys. 70: 1247-59 (1979)

Acridine
Solvent : Hexane

wave length at maximum = 435 nm

Triplet state population method: Pulsed laser photolysis
Comments: 145 ps delay


Struve, W.S.; Hedstrom, J.H.; Morgante, C.G.; Jameson, A.K.; Lim, E.C.
Photophysical anomalies of acridine in n-hexane.
J. Chem. Phys. 78: 7006-8 (1983)

Acridine
Solvent : Hexane

wave length at maximum = 432 nm

Triplet state population method: Pulsed laser photolysis


Periasamy, N.
The T3(Π,Π*) state of acridine.
Chem. Phys. Lett. 99: 322-5 (1983)

Acridine
Solvent : Hexane

wave length at maximum = 980 ± 2; 430 ± 1 nm

Triplet state population method: Pulsed laser photolysis


Hamanoue, K.; Nakajima, K.; Hidaka, T.; Nakayama, T.; Teranishi, H.
Time-dependent picosecond transient absorption spectra of 9-acetylanthracene, benzophenone and acridine in solution.
Laser Chem. 4: 287-95 (1984)

Acridine
Solvent : Hexane

wave length at maximum = 433; 407 nm

Triplet state population method: Pulsed laser photolysis
Comments: Delay 320 ps


Hirata, Y.; Tanaka, I.
Build-up of T-T absorption of acridine following singlet excitation with a picosecond pulse.
Chem. Phys. Lett. 41: 336-8 (1976)

Acridine
Solvent : Isooctane

wave length at maximum = 430; 408a nm

Triplet state population method: Pulsed laser photolysis
Rise time = 0.01 nsec.
Comments: A band was also observed at 511a nm, but a similar band at 530 nm in MeOH was assigned to a precursor of the triplet state


Periasamy, N.
The T3(Π,Π*) state of acridine.
Chem. Phys. Lett. 99: 322-5 (1983)

Acridine
Solvent : MeOH

wave length at maximum = 983 ± 5; 438 ± 1 nm

Triplet state population method: Pulsed laser photolysis


West, M.A.; McCallum, K.J.; Woods, R.J.; Formosinho, S.J.
Absorption and emission spectra and triplet decay of some aromatic and N-heterocyclic compounds in polymethylmethacrylate.
Trans. Faraday Soc. 66: 2135-47 (1970)

Acridine
Solvent : PMMA, 293 K

wave length at maximum = 438; 418 nm

Triplet state population method: Flash photolysis
Lifetime = 1.9 × 104 micro sec.


West, M.A.; McCallum, K.J.; Woods, R.J.; Formosinho, S.J.
Absorption and emission spectra and triplet decay of some aromatic and N-heterocyclic compounds in polymethylmethacrylate.
Trans. Faraday Soc. 66: 2135-47 (1970)

Acridine
Solvent : PMMA, 77 K

wave length at maximum = 440; 420 nm

Triplet state population method: Photostationary
Comments: Band seen at 480 nm and was attributed to a photoproduct


Kasama, K.; Kikuchi, K.; Uji-ie, K.; Yamamoto, S.-A.; Kokubun, H.
Relaxation mechanism of excited acridine in methyl methacrylate and poly(methyl methacrylate).
J. Phys. Chem. 86: 4733-7 (1982)

Acridine
Solvent : PMMA

wave length at maximum = 980; 863a; 776a; 702a; 480a; 441a nm

Triplet state population method: Flash photolysis
Comments: Shoulder at 424 nm; 441 nm peak 10 times more intense than any other peak


Kikuchi, K.; Uji-ie, K.; Miyashita, Y.; Kokubun, H.
Intersystem crossing processes of acridine.
Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 50: 879-82 (1977)

Acridine
Solvent : PVA

wave length at maximum = 980a; 870a; 780a; 450a nm

Triplet state population method: Flash photolysis
Lifetime = 23.8 × 103 micro sec.
Comments: Most intense peak at 450 nm


Jackson, G.; Porter, G.
Acidity constants in the triplet state.
Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 260: 13-30 (1961)

Acridine
Solvent : Water, pH Basic

wave length at maximum = 443 nm

Triplet state population method: Flash photolysis
Comments: pKb = 8.4; a peak reported at 520 nm was later [66A003] shown to decay at a different rate than the 440 nm peak in EtOH


Knowles, A.; Roe, E.M.F.
A flash-photolysis investigation of flavin photosensitization of purine nucleotides.
Photochem. Photobiol. 7: 421-36 (1968)

Acridine
Solvent : Water

wave length at maximum = 443 nm

Triplet state population method: Flash photolysis (coupled with energy transfer)
Comments: ET from lumiflavine


Kellmann, A.; Tfibel, F.
Laser-induced two-photon ionization of acridine in aqueous solution.
Chem. Phys. Lett. 69: 61-5 (1980)

Acridine
Solvent : Water, pH = 12.0

wave length at maximum = 443 nm

Triplet state population method: Flash photolysis
Extinction coefficient estimation method: Total depletion
Comments: ε method assumed from text


Nishida, Y.; Kikuchi, K.; Kokubun, H.
Protolytic reactions of acridine in the triplet state.
J. Photochem. 13: 75-81 (1980)

Acridine
Solvent : Water, 296 K, pH = 10.86

wave length (nm) at maximum, extinction coefficient = 443, 14500

Triplet state population method: Flash photolysis (coupled with energy transfer)
Extinction coefficient estimation method: Energy transfer
Lifetime = ~450 micro sec.
Comments: *Triplet ET from naphthalene-1,5-disulfonate; ε relative to proflavine conjugate acid in water (ε549 = 5700 L mol−1 cm−1)


Kasama, K.; Kikuchi, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Uji-ie, K.; Nishida, Y.; Kokubun, H.
Relaxation mechanism of excited acridine in nonreactive solvents.
J. Phys. Chem. 85: 1291-6 (1981)

Acridine
Solvent : Water, 296 K, pH Basic

wave length (nm) at maximum, extinction coefficient = 880, 1800a
753a, 1100a
689a, 730a
657a, 470a
521a, 1500a
443, 19400 ± 1400

Triplet state population method: Flash photolysis
Extinction coefficient estimation method: Total depletion
Comments: Shoulder at 420 nm


Kasama, K.; Kikuchi, K.; Nishida, Y.; Kokubun, H.
Deactivation mechanism of excited acridine and 9-substituted acridines in water.
J. Phys. Chem. 85: 4148-53 (1981)

Acridine
Solvent : Water, pH = 12.7

wave length at maximum = 855a; 746a; 694a; 510a; 441a nm

Triplet state population method: Pulsed laser photolysis
Comments: Most intense peak at 441 nm


Kasama, K.; Kikuchi, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Uji-ie, K.; Nishida, Y.; Kokubun, H.
Relaxation mechanism of excited acridine in nonreactive solvents.
J. Phys. Chem. 85: 1291-6 (1981)

Acridine
Solvent : Water, 296 K, pH Basic

wave length at maximum = 880 nm wave length (nm) at maximum, extinction coefficient = 443, 20000 ± 2000

Triplet state population method: Flash photolysis
Extinction coefficient estimation method: Energy transfer
Comments: ε relative to proflavine in water (ε549 = 8000 L mol−1 cm−1)


Periasamy, N.
The T3(Π,Π*) state of acridine.
Chem. Phys. Lett. 99: 322-5 (1983)

Acridine
Solvent : Water, pH ~13

wave length at maximum = 983 ± 5; 862a; 775a; 658a; 443 ± 1 nm

Triplet state population method: Pulsed laser photolysis


Kellmann, A.
Intersystem crossing and internal conversion quantum yields of acridine in polar and nonpolar solvents.
J. Phys. Chem. 81: 1195-8 (1977)

Acridine
Solvent : tert-BuOH

wave length (nm) at maximum, extinction coefficient = 436, 26000

Triplet state population method: Flash photolysis
Extinction coefficient estimation method: Total depletion


* Evidence supporting the assignment of the transient triplet state.
a Data have been obtained by computer-assisted digitization from spectrum in cited reference.
c Measurement violates Chauvenet's criterion.

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