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The Eighth Link: Einstein's Legacy

 

Larry Page

Co-founder & President of Google, the search engine which in the few years turned into one of the most connected nodes of the WWW.

 

 

(from http://www.google.com/corporate/execs.html)

 

Violators of the 'first mover's advantage principles': Innovative products that were taken over my second movers:
 

(from http://www.nebu.nl/Pages/volcapinewton.html)
 

 

 

 De Havilland Comet

The World's First Jet Airliner, which dissapeared after the arrival of the Boeing jets.

(from http://www.aviationposters.com/bk11.htm)

 

 

Ginestra Bianconi,
who solved the fitness model, which takes into account that nodes with different fitness compete for links in real networks.
See the paper describing the model. 

(from http://www.nd.edu/~gbiancon)

 

 

 

 

Satyendranath N. Bose, the Indian physicist, who solved one of the misteries of quantum mechanics, showing that in the quantum world some particles are indistinguishable.
Albert Einstein appears on the cover of Time magazine, Dec. 31, 1999, when chosen as the "Person of the Century".
(from http://www.time.com/time/time100/poc/home.html and http://www.th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de/~jr/gif/phys/bose.jpg)

Eric Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl Weiman receiving their Nobel Prize in 2001 for their experimental discovery of Bose-Einstein condensation in quantum gases.

 

(from http://www.nobel.se/physics/laureates/2001/index.html)

 

 

 

 

A schematic illustration of the mapping between the scale-free model with fitness and a Bose gas. (a) In the network each node is characterized by a randomly selected fitness, etai, shown by the different colours. The fitness describes the node's ability to compete for links with other nodes ­ the fittest are more likely to acquire more links as the network grows. We assign the energy epsiloni to each node with fitness etai using etai = exp(­ß epsiloni) to obtain a Bose gas with random energy levels. In the mapping, the fittest nodes (high etai) result in the lowest energy levels (small epsiloni). A link from node i to node j in the network corresponds to a particle in level epsilonj in the Bose gas. The network evolves over time by adding a new node (eta6) that connects to two other nodes (dashed lines). In the Bose gas this corresponds to the addition of a new unoccupied energy level (epsilon6, dashed), and the deposition of two new particles in epsilon1 and epsilon5, the energy levels to which eta6 connects. As the network grows, the number of energy levels and particles increase linearly in time. The calculations show that, depending on the shape of the distribution from which the energy levels (fitnesses) are selected, two distinct phases can develop. (b) In the "fit-get-rich" phase there is no clear winner. The particle density decreases as the energy level increases. (c) In contrast, when Bose­Einstein condensation takes place, the fittest node attracts a significant fraction of all links. This node appears as a highly populated, lowest energy level while higher energies remain only sparsely populated.

(from http://www.physicsweb.org/box/world/14/7/9/pw1407093)

The Physical Review Letters paper demonstrating the possibility of Bose-Einstein condensation in complex networks.

 

(from http://www.nd.edu/~networks)

 

 

Paul Allen & Bill Gates,
whose Microsoft Operating System is a candidate for a Bose-Einsteing condensate.

(fromhttp://histoire.info.online.fr/images/allen-gates.jpeg)

 

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Copyright (c) 2002 Albert-Laszlo Barabasi All rights reserved.
alb@nd.edu