Reducing vortex density in superconductors
[ Nature 400, 337--340 (1999).]
Scanning SQUID microscope image of a thin-film high-Tc washer SQUID,
showing vortices trapped in the bulk of the washer.(Courtesy J.R. Kirtley.)
(J.R. Kirtley et. al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1138--1140)
We propose the use of the ratchet effect to remove the vortices from the SC.
Smoothing surface in MBE
Ratchet effect in surface electromigration
[ Physical Review Letters 80, 1473--1476 (1998). ]
STM images of mound formation during the deposition of Cu on Cu(100).
(J.-K. Zuo et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2791--2794)
We propose the use of the ratchet effect to smooth surface,
eliminating mound formation.