Richard Williams, Notre Dame Sociology

Richard Williams
Department of Sociology
University of Notre Dame

Personal Information

How to Reach Me
Addresses and Phone Numbers
Educational Background, Teaching and Research Interests
Address to the Notre Dame Sociology Class of 2014
Barack Obama's visit to Notre Dame
Barack Obama's commencement address at Notre Dame in May 2009 gave Richard Williams a brief opportunity to serve as a media commentator.
Faculty/Staff Support for the LGBTQ Community at Notre Dame
In 2012 almost 400 Notre Dame faculty and staff signed a letter in support of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Questioning members of the Notre Dame community. The letter, the list of supporters, a statement on the Catholic justification for the letter, and other material are available on the web page.
The Mannix/Williams Family
Photo Album: The Early Years (Pictures from when the kids were little)
  A Soldier's Surprise for the Holidays (The 1971 Williams' family Christmas - Omaha World Herald, Dec. 24, 2002)
  Bobby Williams, aka Double B - Stories about Bobby and examples of his award-winning work
  Bethy Williams - Stories about Bethy
    Anne Mannix, the proud mother of Bobby and Bethy, has some nice accomplishments herself


Soc 10033
Introduction to Social Problems
Soc 43402
Population Dynamics

Soc 73994
Categorical Data Analysis

Soc 63993
Graduate Statistics II

Soc 63992
Graduate Statistics I

Soc 30902
Undergraduate Research Methods

Soc 513
Graduate Research Methods

Soc 530
Intermediate Social Psychology

Stats I, Stats II, Stats III, and Stata Highlights. These are actually alternate versions of my Graduate Statistics I, II, and Categorical Data Analysis pages.  Unlike the regular course pages, the URLs for these pages are fairly stable (for at least a year) for anyone who wants to link to them.  The highlights page singles out those notes that are of special interest to those who want to learn about Stata.

Recent Research and Work in Progress

Dynamic Panel Data Modeling using Maximum Likelihood. Paul Allison, Enrique Moral-Benito, and Richard Williams are currently working on a project entitled "Dynamic Panel Data Modeling using Maximum Likelihood." Panel/longitudinal data have many advantages when trying to make causal inferences but can also be difficult to work with. We show that ML provides an alternative to widely used GMM methods such as Arellano-Bond and is superior in many cases. We have prepared a Stata program called xtdpdml that greatly simplifies the process of estimating our models. The web page lists the  materials are currently available.

Ordinal Generalized Linear Models. oglm is a Stata program written by Richard Williams.  oglm estimates Ordinal Generalized Linear Models. When these models include equations for heteroskedasticity they are also known as heterogeneous choice/ location-scale / heteroskedastic ordinal regression models. oglm supports multiple link functions, including logit, probit, complementary log-log, log-log and cauchit. When an ordinal regression model incorrectly assumes that error variances are the same for all cases, the standard errors are wrong and (unlike OLS regression) the parameter estimates are biased. Heterogeneous choice/ location-scale models explicitly specify the determinants of heteroskedasticity in an attempt to correct for it. Further, these models can be used when the variance/variability of underlying attitudes is itself of substantive interest.  This working paper (revised March 2009; a final version is in the May 2009 Sociological Methods and Research), "Using Heterogeneous Choice Models To Compare Logit and Probit Coefficients Across Groups," shows an application of the oglm program, while "Fitting heterogeneous choice models with oglm"  provides several practical examples of how to estimate and interpret such models.
Generalized logistic regression/ partial proportional odds models for ordinal dependent variables. These papers and handouts illustrate the theory and use of generalized logistic regression models for ordinal dependent variables. Such models can be tested with gologit2, a Stata 8 program written by Richard Williams.  A major strength of gologit2 is that it can estimate models that are less restrictive than the proportional odds /parallel lines models estimated by ologit (whose assumptions are often violated) but more parsimonious and interpretable than those estimated by a non-ordinal method, such as multinomial logistic regression (i.e. mlogit).  gologit2 actually supports multiple link functions, including logit, probit, complementary log-log, log-log and cauchit. If you are already familiar with gologit2 but are having trouble getting it to work right, you may want to check out the troubleshooting page.
One Stroke of the Pen is a November 2009 briefing paper prepared for the Council on Contemporary Families. It discusses John F. Kennedy's executive order 11063 that was supposed to end racial discrimination in housing, and the struggle that has followed since then.  It cautions that "It would be tragic if the economic problems caused by irresponsible lending practices caused us to abandon efforts to end discrimination against minorities and to increase residential security for all Americans." Here is Notre Dame's press release on the paper (Note: the link it gives for the report is now outdated.) A more extensive discussion of the topic appears in this November 2009 talk that was given to The Notre Dame Alumni Club of South Dakota.

Residential Segregation and the Transformation of Home Mortgage Lending, by Carolyn Bond & Richard Williams. (December 2007 Social Forces.) After decades of inequality, the 1990s saw sudden and dramatic increases in lending to low income and minority groups. This paper examines the impact this lending had on residential segregation.  It contends that the nature of lending was even more important than the amount: some lenders and types of lending had much more impact on residential segregation than did others.  The Washington Post discusses highlights from this research in Subprime Mortgages and Race: A Bit of Good News May Be Illusory.

Alternative Assessments of GSE Performance, Influence and Impact.  The May 2006 final report for this HUD funded study is now available.  This report examines the impact that the Government Sponsored Enterprises (Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac) had on nationwide home mortgage lending to underserved markets during the years 1993-2003.  Previous studies have concluded that the GSEs were not leading the market. The ultimate conclusion of this study is the same. But, by virtually every criterion examined, it is also clear that in recent years the GSEs have made noteworthy progress.

The Changing Face of Inequality in Home Mortgage Lending  (Revised January 2005; final version published in Social Problems, May 2005.)  This paper discusses the growth of subprime and manufactured housing lending during the 1990s and the impact this has had on inequality in the United States, both in home mortgage lending and in other areas. The online bibliography includes links to many of the sources used in the paper.

Are the GSEs Leading, and If So Do They Have Any Followers? An Analysis of the GSEs’ Impact on Home Purchase Lending to Underserved Markets During the 1990s.
The November 2002 final report for this HUD funded study is now available.  This report examines the impact that the Government Sponsored Enterprises (Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac) had on nationwide home mortgage lending to underserved markets during the years 1993-2000.

The Effect of GSEs, CRA, and Institutional Characteristics on Home Mortgage Lending to Underserved Markets. The final report for this 1999 HUD funded study is now available. Also available is an updated analysis that extends the work through 1999.

Journal of Urban Affairs, 1997Racial, Economic and Institutional Differences in Home Mortgage Loans: St. Joseph County, Indiana

Area Exams (ND.Edu Users Only)

Methods & Stats
Sample Methods and Statistics Area Exams


Go to ND Soc Home Page

You can send email to Richard Williams at Richard.A.Williams.5@ND.Edu