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Berry, J. S., G. Belovsky, A. Joern, W. P. Kemp, and J. Onsager. 1993. Object-oriented simulation model of rangeland grasshopper population dynamics. Fourth Conference on AI Simulation and Planning in High-Autonomy Systems. Tucson, Arizona, 20-22 September 1993. IEEE Computer Society Press, Washington. 7pp.

Belovsky, G.E. 1984. Herbivore optimal foraging: a comparative test of three models. Amer. Nat. 124:97-115.

Belovsky, G. E. 1985. Comparison of activity cycles, activity times, and feeding times for ten prairie herbivores. National Geographic Society Research Reports 1979: 1-9.

Belovsky, G.E. 1986. Sharing the spoils: how different sizes of herbivores live in a grassland. In : Moore, P.D. (ed.), Collins Encyclopedia of Animal Ecology . Collins, London. pp. 78-79.

Belovsky, G.E. 1986. Optimal foraging and community structure: implications for a guild of generalist grassland herbivores. Oecologia (Berlin) 70:35-52.

Belovsky, G.E., and J.B. Slade. 1986. Time budgets of grassland herbivores: body size similarities. Oecologia (Berlin) 70:53-62.

Belovsky, G.E. 1986. Generalist herbivore foraging and its role in competitive interactions. Amer. Zool. 25:51-69.

Belovsky, G.E. 1987. Foraging and optimal body size: an overview, new data and a test of alternative models. J. Theor. Biol. 129:275-287.

Belovsky, G.E. 1987. An optimal foraging model for wild herbivores. In : Rose, M. (ed.), Herbivore Nutrition Research: Second International Symposium on the Nutrition of Herbivores. Occasional Publication of the Australian Society of Animal Production. pp. 227-228.

Belovsky, G.E., and J.B. Slade. 1987. The role of plant distributions on herbivore diet choice: a comparison of wild and domestic herbivores. In : Rose., M. (ed.), Herbivore Nutrition Research: Second International Symposium on the Nutrition of Herbivores. Occasional Publication of the Australian Society of Animal Production. pp. 87-88.

Belovsky, G.E. 1989. Grasshopper competition. USDA-APHIS-PPQ Grasshopper IPM Project Annual Report - FY-1989. pp. 45-50.

Belovsky, G.E., J.B. Slade, and B. Stockhoff. 1990. Susceptibility to predation for different grasshoppers: an experimental study. Ecology 71:624-634.

Belovsky, G.E. 1990. How important are nutrient constraints in optimal foraging models or are spatial/temporal factors more important? In : Hughes, R.N. (ed.), Behavioral Mechanisms of Food Selection . NATO ASI Series, Vol. G 20. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 255-278.

Belovsky, G.E. 1990. A reply to Hobbs. In : Hughes, R.N. (ed.), Behavioral Mechanisms of Food Selection . NATO ASI Series, Vol. G 20. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 415-422.

Belovsky, G., and J. Slade. 1990. New Montanan decticid, a glacial relict. Metaleptea 12(2):3.

Belovsky, G.E. 1990. Grasshopper competition and predation: biological control options. USDA-APHIS-PPQ Grasshopper IPM Project Annual Report - FY-1990. pp. 37-44.

Belovsky, G.E., and O.J. Schmitz. 1991. Mammalian herbivore optimal foraging and the role of plant defenses. In : Palo, R.T., and C.T. Robbins (eds.), Plant Defenses Against Mammalian Herbivores . CRC Publishing, Boca Raton. pp. 1-28.

Belovsky, G.E. 1991. Alternate population dynamics for grasshoppers: implications for pest control. USDA-APHIS-PPQ Grasshopper IPM Project Annual Report - FY-1991. pp. 53-65.

Belovsky, G.E. 1992. Grasshopper control: implications of investigations into population/community ecology. USDA-APHIS-PPQ Grasshopper IPM Project Annual Report - FY-1992. pp. 57-63.

Belovsky, G.E., and O.J. Schmitz. 1993. Owen-Smith's evaluation of herbivore foraging models: what is constraining? Evolutionary Ecology 7:525-529.

Belovsky, G.E. 1993. Modeling avian foraging: implications for assessing the ecological effects of pesticides. Pp. 131-145. In : Kendall, R.J., and T.E. Lacher, Jr. (eds.), Wildlife Toxicology and Population Modeling: Integrated Studies of Agroecosystems . CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton.

Belovsky, G.E., and J.B. Slade. 1993. The role of vertebrate and invertebrate predators in a grasshopper community. Oikos 68:193-201.

Belovsky, G.E. 1993. Grasshopper control: implications of investigations into population/community ecology. USDA-APHIS-PPQ Grasshopper IPM Project Annual Report - FY-1993. pp. 57-65.

Belovsky, G. E., and O.J. Schmitz. 1994. Plant defenses and optimal foraging by mammalian herbivores. J. Mamm. 75(4):816-832.

Belovsky, G. E. 1994. How good must models and data be in ecology? Oecologia 100:475-480.

Belovsky, G.E., and J.B. Slade. 1995. Dynamics of some Montana grasshopper populations: relationships among weather, food abundance and intraspecific competition. Oecologia 101:383-396.

Belovsky, G. E., and A. Joern. 1995. The dominance of different regulating factors for rangeland grasshoppers. Pages 359-386. In: Population Dynamics: New Approaches and Synthesis (N. Cappuccino and P. Price, eds.), Academic Press, New York.

Belovsky, G.E., J.B. Slade, and J.M. Chase. 1996. Mating strategies based on foraging ability: an experiment with grasshoppers. Behavioral Ecology 7:438-444.

Belovsky, G.E., Lockwood, J., and Winks, K. 1996-99. Recognizing and managing potential outbreak conditions. In: Grasshopper Integrated Pest Management User Handbook (Gary L. Cunningham and Mike W. Sampson, tech. cords.). Technical Bulletin 1809. Washington, DC: USDA, APHIS: IV.8-1 to IV.8-4.

Belovsky, G.E, D. Branson, J. Chase, J. Barker, and G. Hammond. 1996-99. Mites and nematode parasites of grasshoppers. In: Grasshopper Integrated Pest Management User Handbook (Gary L. Cunningham and Mike W. Sampson, tech. cords.). Technical Bulletin 1809. Washington, DC: USDA, APHIS: I.9-1 to I.9-3.

Belovsky, G.E. 1997. Optimal foraging and community structure: the allometry of herbivore food selection and competition. Evolutionary Ecology 11:641-672.

Belovsky, G.E., Fryxell, J., and Schmitz, O. J. 1999. Natural selection and herbivore nutrition: optimal foraging theory and what it tells us about the structure of ecological communities. Pp. 1-70. In: Nutritional Ecology of Herbivores: Proceedings of the Vth International Symposium on the Nutrition of Herbivores (H.-J. G. Jung and G. C. Fahey, Jr., Eds.) American Society of Animal Science, Savoy, IL. 836 pp.

Belovsky, G.E. 1996-2000. Grasshopper population regulation. In: Grasshopper Integrated Pest Management User Handbook (Gary L. Cunningham and Mike W. Sampson, tech. cords.). Technical Bulletin 1809. Washington, DC: USDA, APHIS: VII.14-1 to VII.14-8.

Belovsky, G.E., Onsager, J., and Manske, L. 1996-2000. Grasshopper habitat manipulation. In: Grasshopper Integrated Pest Management User Handbook (Gary L. Cunningham and Mike W. Sampson, tech. cords.). Technical Bulletin 1809. Washington, DC: USDA, APHIS: VII.15-1 to VII.15-5.

Belovsky, G.E., Joern, A., and Lockwood, J. 1996-2000. Grasshoppers -- plus and minus; the grasshopper problem on a regional basis, and a look at beneficial effects of grasshoppers. In: Grasshopper Integrated Pest Management User Handbook (Gary L. Cunningham and Mike W. Sampson, tech. cords.). Tech. Bull. 1809. Washington, DC: USDA, APHIS: VII.16-1 to VII.16-5.

Belovsky, G. E., M. A. Brusven, D. J. Fielding, and L. Manske. 2000. Grasshopper habitat manipulation. Pages VII.15-1 to VII.15-5. in Gary L. Cunningham and Mike W. Sampson, technical coordinators. Grasshopper Integrated Pest Management User Handbook. Technical Bulletin 1809. USDA, APHIS, Washington, DC.

Belovsky, G.E. 2000. Do grasshoppers diminish grassland productivity? A new perspective for control based on conservation. Pp. 7-29. In: Grasshoppers and Grassland Health: Managing Grasshopper Outbreaks without Risking Environmental Disaster (J. A. Lockwood, A. V. Latchininsky and M. G. Sergeev, eds.), NATO Science Series 2. Environmental Security - Vol. 73, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Belovsky, G.E., and J.B. Slade. 2000. Insect herbivory accelerates nutrient cycling and increases plant production. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences. 97(26):14412-14417.

Belovsky, G.E. 2002. Ecological stability: Reality, misconceptions and implications for risk assessment. Health and Ecological Risk Assessment 8:99-108.

Belovsky, G.E., Slade, J.B. 2002. Grasshopper control: no treatment at all ... any possible advantages? Journal of Orthoptera Research 11:29-35.

Branson, D. H. 1999. Life history traits of a grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes. Ph.D. Dissertation. Utah State University, Logan, UT.

Branson, D. and B. Redlin, editors. 2001. Grasshoppers: Their Biology, Identification and Management CD-RM transfer project of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (through the Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory in Sidney, Montana), the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and the University of Wyoming-Laramie. USDA, APHIS, Washington, DC.

Branson, D. H. 2003a. Reproduction and survival in Melanoplus sanguinipes (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in response to resource availability and population density: the role of exploitative competition. The Canadian Entomologist 135:415-426.

Branson, D. H. 2003b. Effects of a parasite mite on life-history variation in two grasshopper species. Evolutionary Ecology Research 5:397-409.

Branson, D. H. 2004. Relative importance of nymphal and adult resource availability on reproductive allocation in Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius). Journal of Orthoptera Research. (in press).

Chase, J. M. 1996a. Differential competitive interactions and the included niche: an experimental analysis with grasshoppers. Oikos 76:103-112.

Chase, J. M. 1996b. Varying resource abundances and competitive dynamics. American Naturalist 147:649-654.

Chase, J. M. 1996c. Abiotic controls of trophic cascades in a simple grassland food chain. Oikos 77:495-506.

Chase, J. M., and G.E. Belovsky. 1994. Experimental evidence for the included niche. Amer. Nat. 143:514-527.

Haynes, K. J. 1998. Why do grasshoppers have different phenologies? M.S. Thesis. Utah State University, Logan, Utah.

Haynes, K. J. 2003. Comparison of feeding in two phenologically distinct grasshoppers. Prairie Naturalist 35: 9-18.

Joern, A., Kemp, W.P., Onsager, J., Lockwood, J., and Belovsky, G.E. 1996-2001. What we now know about grasshopper populations: hatching, nymphal development, survival, and reproduction. In: Grasshopper Integrated Pest Management User Handbook (Gary L. Cunningham and Mike W. Sampson, tech. cords.). Tech. Bull. 1809. Washington, DC: USDA, APHIS: VII. In press.

Joern, A., Kemp, W.P., Belovsky, G.E., and O'Neill, Kevin. 1996-99. Grasshoppers and vegetation communities. In: Grasshopper Integrated Pest Management User Handbook (Gary L. Cunningham and Mike W. Sampson, tech. cords.). Technical Bulletin 1809. Washington, DC: USDA, APHIS: IV.3-1 to IV.3-10.

Krippner, L. R. 1991. The role of microhabitat, interspecific competition and predation on the distributions and abundances of three grasshopper species in western Montana (Orthoptera: Acrididae). M.S. Thesis. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Moo, J. 2001. Habitat choice in a generalist grasshopper under mortality risk. M.S. Thesis. Utah State University, Logan, UT.

Nardoni-Laws, A. 2003. Effects of density on life-history strategies of grasshoppers. M.S. Thesis. Utah State University, Logan, UT.

Onsager, J. A., J.S. Berry, W.P. Kemp, G. Belovsky, and A. Joern. 1992. Object-oriented simulation model of rangeland grasshopper population dynamics. USDA-APHIS-PPQ Grasshopper IPM Project Annual Report - FY-1992. pp. 45-48.

Ritchie, M. E. 1987. Natural selection of optimal foraging behavior in Columbian ground squirrels. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 156pp.

Ritchie, M.E. 1983. Site variation in Columbian ground squirrel foraging and its impact on sociality. M.S. Thesis. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 21 pp.

Ritchie, M.E., and G.E. Belovsky. 1990. Sociality of Columbian ground squirrels in relation to their seasonal energy intake. Oecologia (Berlin) 83:495-503.

Schmitz, O. J. 1993. Trophic exploitation in grassland food chains: simple models and a field experiment. Oecologia 93:327-335.

Shetrone, D. 2004. An experimental test of the importance of indirect effects on grasshopper population under avian predation risk. M.S. Thesis. Utah State University, Logan, UT.

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