Comprehensive Examination Reading List

University of Notre Dame

Department of Government and International Studies

International Relations Subfield

Fall 2004


This reading list is designed to help graduate students prepare for their comprehensive examination in the political science subfield of international relations.  Since it is impossible to provide a truly comprehensive list of all of the important works in the field of IR, students preparing for this examination may also find it useful to review the last several years' (or decades, for the eager) issues of the principal journals in international relations, including International Organization, International Security, and World Politics. Review of field seminar syllabi from schools that offer field seminars and talking with your international relations professors are also encouraged.  Students preparing for this examination should also be methodologically astute, able to write clearly, and able to make compelling arguments.

We want our international relations students to be well versed in IR-related current events and historical developments for two reasons. First, they should be able to apply theoretical knowledge to real world issues. Second, students should develop their own stands on the main debates in international relations. A principal way of demonstrating their own point of view is to make informed and theoretical arguments about currents events and historical issues. Because of this, almost all of our examination questions ask students to demonstrate their arguments with reference to current events and historical issues.

Preparation for this exam is a chance to build a broader and more integrated view of the field of international relations. You should try to knit together theories, themes, and arguments from your courses and outside readings so that they form a more coherent whole, and you should try to integrate international relations with your other field(s). This exam is part of the passage from being a student consuming international relations courses to a professional producing political science knowledge. The international relations examination is first and foremost part of your intellectual development.

The exam is also our chance to gauge your progress in our program. Success means that we certify you as a competent scholar in international relations. If we pass you, it means we believe that you could teach Introduction to International Relations, and that you could hold your own in general international relations discussions at conferences or at a job interview. Our field, our department, our university, and your peers on the job market have a vested interest in maintaining high standards.



a.Methodology/Analytical theory

Art, Robert and Robert Jervis (eds) International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (latest edition)

Axelrod, Robert, Evolution of Cooperation (1984)

Baldwin, David (ed) Neorealism and Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate (1993)

Carlsnaes, Walter et al. 2002.  Handbook of International Relations (Sage Publications).

Doyle, Michael, Ways of War and Peace (1997)

Fearon, James (1991). “Counterfactuals and Hypothesis Testing in Political Science,” World Politics, 43 (2), January: 169-95.

Fearon, James D. 1998. “Bargaining, Enforcement, and International Cooperation.” International Organization. 52: 269-305.

George, Alexander, "Case Studies and Theory Development" Diplomacy: New Approaches in History, Theory, and Policy (1979)

Gourevitch, Peter. “The Second Image Reversed: The International Sources of Domestic Politics” International Organization, 32:4 (Autumn 1978): 881-911.

Hirschman, Albert, Exit, Voice, and Loyalty (1970)

Katzenstein, Peter, Robert Keohane, and Stephen Krasner, Exploration and Contestation in the Study of World Politics (1999)

Keohane, Robert, Gary King and Sidney Verba, Designing Social Inquiry (1994)

Milner, Helen. 1998. “Rationalizing Politics: the Emerging Synthesis of International, American, and Comparative Politics,” International Organization, 52, 4, 759-88.

Olson Jr., Mancur, The Logic of Collective of Action (1971)

Putnam, Robert. 1988. “Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Games.” International Organization Vol. 42 No. 3 (Summer):427-460.


Carr, E.H., Twenty Years' Crisis (1946)

Gilpin, Robert, War and Change in World Politics (1981)

Keohane, Robert (ed) Neorealism and Its Critics (1986)

Machiavelli, Niccolo, The Prince (any edition)

Mearsheimer, John, The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (2001)

Morgenthau, Hans, Politics among Nations (any edition)

Waltz, Kenneth, Man, the State, and War (1959)

Waltz, Kenneth, Theory of International Politics (1979)


Bull, Hedley, Anarchical Society, (1977)

Ikenberry, John. After Victory ((2001)

Keohane, Robert, After Hegemony (1984)

Keohane, Robert, International Institutions and State Power: Essays in International RelationsTheory (1989)

Knight, Jack, Institutions and Social Conflict (1992)

Krasner, Stephen, International Regimes (1983)

Mearsheimer, John J. (1994/95). “The False Promise of International Institutions.” International Security, 19, 3, Winter, 5-93 (includes responses by Keohane and Martin and by Wendt).

Morrow, James. 1994. “Modelling the Forms of International Cooperation: Distribution vs. Information.” International Organization 48(3).

Ostrom, Elinor, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions of Collective Action(1990)

Oye, Ken, Cooperation Under Anarchy (1986)

d. Liberalism

Hoffmann, Stanley, "Liberalism and International Affairs," in Janus and Minerva

Essays in the Theory and Practice of International Politics (1987)

Kant, Immanuel, Perpetual Peace (any edition)

Katzenstein, Peter, Between Power and Plenty: Foreign Economic Policies of Advanced

Industrial States (1978)

Milner, Helen, Interests, Institutions and Information: Domestic Politics and International Relations (1997)

Moravcsik, Andrew, "A Liberal Theory of International Politics," International Organization (Autumn 1997)

Parkinson, F., chapter 4 in The Philosophy of International Relations: A Study in the History of Thought (1977).

Wolfers, Arnold and Laurence Martin (eds) The Anglo-American Tradition in Foreign Affairs (1956)

e. Constructivism and Ideas

Goldstein, Judith and Robert Keohane (eds) Ideas and Foreign Policy (1993)

Katzenstein, Peter, Culture of National Security (1996)

Ruggie, John Gerard, Constructing the World Polity: Essays on International Institutionalization (1998)

Wendt, Alexander, Social Theory of International Politics (1999)

f. Normative Theory and Ethics

Charles Beitz, Political Theory and International Relations (1979)

Hoffman, Stanley, Duties Beyond Borders (1981)

Nardin, Terry (ed) The Ethics of War and Peace (1996)

Nardin, Terry and David Mapel (eds) Traditions of International Ethics (1992)

Walzer, Michael, Just and Unjust Wars (1977)




Alt, James E. and Michael Gilligan, “The Political Economy of Trading States: Factor Specificity, Collective Action Problems, and Domestic Political Institutions,” Journal of Political Philosophy 2:2 (1994), 165-192.

Alt, James E., Jeffry Frieden, Michael Gilligan, Dani Rodrik, and Ronald Rogowski. “The Political Economy of International Trade: Enduring Puzzles and an Agenda for Inquiry.” Comparative Political Studies Vol. 29 No. 6 (December):689 717.

Bailey, Michael, Judith Goldstein, and Barry R. Weingast, “The Institutional Roots of American Trade Policy: Politics, Coalitions, and International Trade,” World Politics 49, no. 3 (April 1997): 309-338.

Hiscox, Michael. "The Magic Bullet? The RTAA, Institutional Reform, and Trade Liberalization," International Organization 53, no. 4 (Autumn 1999), 669-698.

Katzenstein, Peter, Small States in World Markets (1985)

Milgrom, Paul R., Douglas C. North, and Barry Weingast, “The Role of Institutions in the Revival of Trade: The Law Merchant, Private Judges, and the Champagne Fairs.” Economics and Politics 2, no. 1 (1990): 1-23.

Milner, Helen, "Trading Places: Industries for Free Trade" World Politics. April, 1988, pp. 350-76.

Rogowski, Ronald. 1987. “Political Cleavages and Changing Exposure to Trade.” American Political Science Review 81, 1121–1137.

Scheve, Kenneth, and Matthew Slaughter. 2001. "What Determines Individual Trade-Policy Preferences?" Journal of International Economics 54, no. 2 (August): 267-292.


Broz, J. Lawrence and Jeffry A. Frieden, “The Political Economy of International Monetary Relations,” Annual Review of Political Science¸ volume 4, 2001.

Cohen, Benjamin J., The Geography of Money (1998)

Eichengreen, Barry, Globalizing Capital: A History of the International Monetary System (1996)

Frieden, Jeffery A. (1991) “Invested Interests: the Politics of National Economic Policies in A World of Global Finance.” International Organization, 45(4):425-451.

Helleiner, Eric. (1994) States and the Reemergence of Global Finance: From Bretton Woods to the 1990s, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Leblang, David and William Bernhardt. (1999) “Democratic Institutions and Exchange Rate Commitments,” International Organization 53:71-97.

Obstfeld, Maurice. 1998. “The Global Capital Market: Benefactor or Menace?” International Organization 12, 4:9-30.

Quinn, Dennis and Carla Inclan. “The Origins of Financial Openness: A Study of Current and Capital Account Liberalization.” American Journal of Political Science Vol. 41 No. 3 (July):771-813.

Simmons, Beth, Who Adjusts? Princeton University Press, 1994.

c.Global and Regional Integration

Ian Clark, Globalization and International Relations Theory (1999)

Garrett, Geoffrey. (1998) “Global Markets and National Politics: Collision Course or Virtuous Circle?” International Organization pp. 787-824.

Garrett, Geoffrey. (2000) “The Causes of Globalization,” Comparative Political Studies 33:941-991.

Held, David et al., Global Transformations. Politics Economics and Culture (1999).

Keohane, Robert and Helen Milner (eds) Internationalization and Domestic Politics (1996)

Krasner, Stephen D. (1991). “Global Communications and National Power: Life on the Pareto Frontier,” World Politics, 43, April, pp. 336-66.

Rodrik, Dani, Has Globalization Gone Too Far? (1997)

Moravcsik, Andrew, The Choice for Europe (1998)

Moravscik, Andrew. 1991. “Negotiating the Single European Act: National Interests and Conventional Statecraft in the European Community.” International Organization Vol. 45 No. 1 (Winter):19-56.

Mosley, Layna. 2000. “International Financial Markets and National Welfare States,” International Organization 54, 4:737-74.

Solingen, Etel, Regional Orders at Century's Dawn : Global and Domestic Influences on Grand Strategy (1998)


Amsden, Alice, The Rise of "The Rest:". Challenge to the West from Late Industrializing

Economies (2001)

Brewer, Anthony, Marxist Theories of Imperialism: A Critical Survey (1990)

Haggard, Stephan, Pathways from the Periphery (1990)

Sen, Amartya, Development As Freedom (2000).



a.Historical International Orders

Ferguson, Yale and Richard Mansbach, Polities (1996)

Huntington, Samuel, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (1996)

Kennedy, Paul, The Rise and Fall of Great Powers (1987)

Polanyi, Karl, The Great Transformation (1944)

Wallerstein, Immanuel, The Essential Wallerstein (2000)

b.International Institutions

Abbot, Kenneth, and Duncan Snidal. 1998. “Why States Act through Formal International Organizations.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 42(1) Claude, Jr., Inis, Swords into Plowshares (1971)

Falk, Richard, On Humane Governance: Toward a New Global Politics (1995)

Keohane, Robert, "International Institutions" International Studies Quarterly (1988)

Krasner, Stephen, Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy (1999)

Weiss, Thomas, David Forsythe and Roger Coate, The United Nations and Changing World Politics (2001)

Young, Oran, Governance in World Affairs (1999)

c.International Law

Abbott, Kenneth W., Robert O. Keohane, Andrew Moravcsik, Anne-Marie Slaughter, and Duncan Snidal. 2000. “The Concept of Legalization.” International Organization Vol. 54 No. 3 (Summer):401-419.

Akehurst, Michael, A Modern Introduction to International Law (1987)

Chayes, Abram and Antonia Handler Chayes, The New Sovereignty (1995)

Donnelly, Jack, Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice (1989)

Goldstein, Judith L., Miles Kahler, Robert O. Keohane and Anne-Marie Slaughter. 2000. Introduction: Legalization and World Politics  International Organization Vol. 54 No. 3 (Summer): 385 – 399.

Kahler, Miles. 2000.  Conclusion: The Causes and Consequences of Legalization International Organization Vol. 54 No. 3 (Summer): 661 – 683.

Kahler, Miles. 2000. Legalization as Strategy: The Asia-Pacific Case International Organization Vol. 54 No. 3 (Summer):549 – 571.

Simmons, Beth A. 2000.  “International Law and State Behavior: Commitment and Compliance in International Monetary Affairs,” American Political Science Review 94, 4 (December 2000).

d.Transnational Actors and Interdependence

Keck, Margaret and Katherine Sikkink, Activists Beyond Borders (1998)

Keohane, Robert and Joseph Nye, Power and Interdependence (1989)

Risse-Kappen, Thomas, Bringing Transnational Relations Back In (1995)



a.Power and Security

Art, Robert and Kenneth Waltz (eds) The Use of Force (1999)

Sagan, Scott and Kenneth Waltz, Spread of Nuclear Weapons (1995)

Schelling, Thomas, The Strategy of Conflict (1960)

b.Causes of War, Collective Violence, and Peace

Appleby, Scott, The Ambivalence of the Sacred : Religion, Violence, and Reconciliation (2000)

Betts, Richard, Conflict after the Cold War (1994)

Blainey, Geoffrey (ed) The Causes of War (1998)

Brown, Michael et al., America's Strategic Choices (2000)

Brown, Michael, Ethnic Conflict and International Security (1993)

Brown, Michael (ed) Theories of War and Peace: An International Security Reader (1998)

Brown, Michael, Sean M. Lynn-Jones and Steven E. Miller (eds) Debating the Democratic

Peace (1993).

Brown, Michael and Sean Lynn-Jones, Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict (1997)

Brown, Michael, Sean Lynn-Jones and Steven Miller (eds) The Perils of Anarchy (1995)

Fearon, James. 1994. “Domestic Political Audiences and the Escalation of International Disputes.” APSR 88(3).

Fearon, James. “Signaling vs. the Balance of Powers and Interests.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 38(2): 236-69.

Fearon, James. 1995. “Rationalist Explanations for War.” International Organization 49(3).

Geller, Daniel S. and J. David Singer, Nations at War: A Scientific Study of International

Conflict (1998)

Jervis, Robert, "Cooperation Under the Security Dilemma" World Politics (1978)

Jervis, Robert, Perception and Misperception in International Politics (1976)

Levy, Jack, "The Causes of War: A Review of Theories and Evidence," in Philip Tetlock, et al., Behavior, Society and Nuclear War, Vol I (1989)

Reiter, Dan. 2003. “Exploring the Bargaining Model of War,” Perspectives on Politics 1 (March): 27-43.

Van Evera, Stephen, Causes of War (1999)

Walt, Stephen, Origins of Alliances (1987)




Allison, Graham and Philip Zelikow, Essence of Decision (1999)

Evans, Peter, Harold Jacobsen and Robert Putnam (eds) Double Edged Diplomacy (1993)

Ikenberry, G. John (ed) American Foreign Policy: Theoretical Essays, 3 ed. (1999)

Khong, Yuen Foong, Analogies at War (1992)

Zakaria, Fareed, From Wealth to Power: The Unusual Origins of America's World Role


b.History and Cases

Gaddis, John Lewis, The United States and the Origins of the Cold War (1972)

Gaddis, John Lewis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History (1997)

George, Alexander and Richard Smoke, Deterrence and American Foreign Policy (1974)

Kennan, George F., American Diplomacy, expanded ed. (1984)

Lynn-Jones, Sean and Steven Miller, The Cold War and After (1991)

Pastor, Robert, A Century's Journey. How Great Powers Shape the World (1999)

Tessler, Mark, A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (1994)