Jacques Maritain Center : Greatest of Centuries




Otho IV 1198-1218
Frederick II 1212-1250
Conrad IV 1250-1254
William of Holland 1254-1256
Richard Earl of Cornwall 1257-1273
Rudolph of Hapsburg.1273-1291
Adolph of Nassau 1292-1298
Albert of Austria 1298-1308

William 1175-1214
Alexander II 1214-1249
Alexander III 1249-1286
Margaret 1286-1292
John Balliol 1292-1296
Interregnum 1296-1306

Alfonso IX 1188-1214
Henry I 1214-1217
St. Ferdinand III 1217-1252
Alfonso X 1252-1284
Sancho IV 1284-1295
Ferdinand IV 1295-1312

John Lackland 1199-1216
Henry III 1216-1272
Edward I 1272-1307

Philip II 1180-1223
Louis VIII 1223-1226
Louis IX 1226-1270
Philip III 1270-1285
Louis IV 1314-1316

Pedro II 1196-1213
James I., the Conqueror 1215-1276
Pedro III 1276-1285
Alfonso III 1285-1291
James II 1291-1327

Conrad 1250-1254
Conradin 1254-1258
Manfred 1258-1266
Charles of Anjou 1266-1285
Charles 1285-1309


1202. -- Fourth great crusade under Boniface, marquis of Montferrat.

1204. -- The English stripped of Normandy, etc., by Philip Augustus of France.

1206. -- Jenghis-Khan: foundation of the great empire of the Moguls.

1212. -- Battle of Ubeda: defeat and fall of Almohads of Africa.

1213. -- John Lackland acknowledges himself vassal of the pope.

1213. -- Battle of Bouvines won by Philip Augustus.

1215. -- Magna Charta. The palatinate of the Rhine goes to the house of Wittelsbach.

1217. -- Crusade of Andrew II., King of Hungary.

1218. -- Extinction of the dukes of Zarringuia: Switzerland becomes an immediate province of the empire.

1222. -- Charter or decree of Andrew II., basis of the Hungarian Constitution.

1226. -- Renewal of the League of Lombardy to oppose the Emperor Frederick II.

1227. -- Battle of Bornhoeved in Holstein: Waldemar II., King of Denmark, loses his conquests on the southern coast of the Baltic.

1228. -- Crusade of the Emperor Frederick II.

1230. -- The Teutonic order establishes itself in Prussia. Conquest of the Balearic islands by the King of Aragon.

1235. -- Formation of the Duchy of Brunswick in favor of the house of the Guelphs.

1236. -- Conquest of the Kingdoms of Cordova, Murcia and Seville by the Castilians.

1237. -- Conquest of Russia by Baton-Khan: origin of the Mogul or Tartar horde of Kaptschak.

1241. -- Invasion of Poland, Silesia, and Hungary by the Moguls.

1248. -- Crusade of St. Louis King of France.

1250. -- Beginning of the great interregnum in Germany.

1254. -- Accessions of the emperors of different houses in Germany. End of the dominion of the Agubites in Egypt and Syria; beginning of the empire of the Mamelukes.

1256. -- Enfranchisement of the serfs at Bologna in Italy.

1261. -- Michel Paleologus, emperor of Nice, takes Constantinople; end of the empire of the Latins.

1265. -- Accession of the house of Anjou to the throne of the Two Sicilies.

1266. -- Admission of the Commons to the Parliament of England.

1268. -- Corradino decapitated at Naples; extinction of the house of Hohenstaufen. Suabia and Franconia become immediate provinces of the empire.

1271. -- The county of Toulouse passes to the King of France, and the Venaissin to the Pope.

1273. -- Accession of the Emperor Rudolph of Hapsburg to the throne of the empire: first election by the seven electors.

1282. -- Conquest of Wales by the King of England.

1282. -- The Sicilian Vespers, the kingdom of Sicily passes to the King of Aragon. The Emperor Rudolph gives to his sons the duchies of Austria; foundation of the house of Hapsburg.

1283. -- The Teutonic order completes the conquest of Prussia.

1289. -- Extinction of the male line of the old race of Scotch kings. Contest of Baliol and Bruce.

1290. -- Decline of the republic of Piza. Aggrandizement of that of Genoa.

1291. -- Taking of Ptolemais and Tyre by the Mamelukes. End of the crusades.

1294. -- Decline of the Mogul empire at the death of Kublai-Khan.

1298. -- Tntroduction of an hereditary aristocracy at Venice.

1300. -- Foundation of the modern Turkish empire by Ottoman I. First Jubilee proclaimed by Pope Boniface VIII.

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