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THEO 684: Topics in Liturgical Studies: The Sanctus

Fall Semester, 2003 Wednesdays: 1:15 - 3:45 DBRT 302
Required Texts | Tentative Schedule

Course Description

By the late fourth century in the Christian East and the fifth century in the Christian West the hymn of the sanctus, the "thrice-holy," of Isaiah 6:2-3 had entered into Christian eucharistic praying as an integral component. But how, from where, and precisely when? This research seminar in early Christian comparative liturgiology, of potential interest also to those in CJA and HC, will investigate the origins of the anaphoral (= eucharistic prayer) use of the sanctus and its function and theological meaning in various eucharistic prayers of East and West in the light of contemporary scholarship. In particular, this course will focus on the recent scholarship of Bryan Spinks, Robert Taft, and Gabriele Winkler.

Class Format

This seminar, primarily, is a close reading of classical euchological texts of the Sanctus in original languages and/or translations aided by the insights of modern liturgical scholarship. It will proceed in a graduate seminar fashion in which each participant will make individual (assigned/chosen) contributions toward a common goal. What this means, concretely, is that the members of the seminar will depend upon each other as mutual teachers who are responsible individually for specific (assigned/chosen) topics although it is expected that all will have read the materials in question before each class session so that the discussion will be an informed one.

Goals and Objectives

This course intends to assist doctoral students in Liturgical Studies and others in acquiring:

  1. A thorough knowledge of the origins, evolution, and theology of the Sanctus according to its various expressions within the anaphoral traditions of the diverse Ecclesial Rites of the Church in the patristic period;
  2. Greater facility in doing liturgical research at the doctoral level.

Course Requirements

The above goals and objectives will be met by:

  1. Attendance at and participation in all class sessions;
  2. Keeping up with the Assigned Required Reading;
  3. A Series of Short (4-5 page) Seminar-Style Reports and Summaries of key essays and other texts dealing with the development and theology of the Sanctus. These reports are to be delivered orally and are to be photo-copied for distribution to the rest of the class at the time of the oral presentation. (Note: summaries/reports are not only to be descriptive but also evaluative of contents and it is assumed that the TEXT(S) of the prayers as included in Prex Eucharistica and/or other collections are of major importance).
  4. A Research paper of journal article length and quality chosen in consultation with the instructor. This paper will be presented to the class during the last few weeks of the course.

Required Texts

  • Bryan Spinks, The Sanctus in the Eucharistic Prayer (Cambridge 1991).
  • Gabriele Winkler, Das Sanctus. Über den Ursprung und die Anfänge des Sanctus und sein Fortwirken, Orientalia Christiana Analecta 267 (Rome 2002).
  • Photo-copied course packet available from the Copy Shop, Third Floor O’Shag.

Highly Recommended

  • A. Hänggi and I. Pahl (eds.), Prex Eucharistica: Textus e variis liturgiis antiquioribus selecti, 2nd edition, Spicilegium Fribrugense 12 (Fribourg: Éditions Universitaires Fribourg Suisse, 1968).
  • R.C.D.Jasper and G.J Cuming (eds.), Prayers of the Eucharist: Early and Reformed, 3rd Edition (The Liturgical Press, Pueblo: Collegeville 1987).
  • Note: If students have not yet read P. Bradshaw, The Search for the Origins of Christian Worship, this should be read as early as possible in the course.

Tentative Schedule of Classes and Topics

I. Introductory Materials

W, Aug 27

A. Introduction to the Course, Selection of Report and Research Topics
B. The Eucharistic Liturgy: Historical and Theological Overview I

W, Sept 3

The Eucharistic Liturgy: Historical and Theological Overview II

W, Sept 10

Previous Approaches to the Question of the Anaphoral use of the Sanctus

  • E.C. Ratcliff, "The Sanctus and the Pattern of the Early Anaphora," Journal of Ecclesiastical History 1 (1950): 29-36, 125-134 (in course packet): __________________;
  • T. Talley, "Sources and Structures of the Eucharistic Prayer," in idem., Worship: Reforming Tradition (The Pastoral Press: Washington D.C. 1990), pp. 11-34 (in course packet): _______________.

1. For Report and/or Summary

II. Unit One: Bryan Spinks, The Sanctus in the Eucharistic Prayer

W, Sept 17

Introduction and Chapter 1: ________________________
Chapter 2 and B. Spinks, "The Jewish Liturgical Sources for the Sanctus," The Heythrop Journal 21 (1980): 168-179 (in course packet): _______________________

W, Sept 24

Chapter 3: ___________________________
Chapter 4: _________________________________

W, Oct. 1

Chapter 5: ____________________________
Chapter 6 (plus appendix): ____________________

W, Oct. 8

Chapter 7: ____________________________

III. UNIT TWO: Robert Taft, S.J., "The Interpolation of the Sanctus into the Anaphora: When and Where? A Review of the Dossier”

W, Oct. 8 (cont.)

Robert Taft, S.J., "The Interpolation of the Sanctus into the Anaphora: When and Where? A Review of the Dossier," Part I, Orientalia Christiana Periodica 57 (1991) 281-308 (in course packet): ______________________________.

W, Oct. 15

  • Robert Taft, S.J., "The Interpolation of the Sanctus into the Anaphora: When and Where? A Review of the Dossier," Part II, Orientalia Christiana Periodica 58 (1992) 531-552 (course packet) ___________________________.
  • M. E. Johnson, , "The Archaic Nature of the Sanctus, Institution Narrative, and Epiclesis of the Logos in the Anaphora Ascribed to Sarapion of Thmuis," in R. Taft (ed.), The Christian East: Its Institutions & Its Thought, OCA 251 (Rome 1996): 671-702 (in course packet): ___________________

    Discussion of the approaches of Spinks and Taft.

October 18 – October 26: Mid-semester Break

IV. Unit Three: Gabriele Winkler, Das Sanctus

Other Winkler related texts in course packet:

  • G. Winkler, "Weitere Beobachtungen zur frühen Epiklese (den Doxologien und dem Sanctus), Über die Bedeutung der Apokryphen für die Erforschung der Entwicklung der Riten," Oriens Christianus 80 (1996), 177-200; and
  • M.E. Johnson, "The Origins of the Anaphoral use of the Sanctus and Epiclesis Revisited: The Contribution of Gabriele Winkler and its Implications," in H-J. Feulner, E.Velkovska, and R. Taft (eds.), Crossroad of Cultures: Studies in Liturgy and Patristics in Honor of Gabriele Winkler, Orientalia Christiana Analecta 260 (Rome: Pontifical Oriental Institute, 2000), pp. 405-442.

W, OCT. 29

Pp. 5 – 31: _________________________;
Pp. 31-69: __________________.

W, NOV. 5

Pp. 69-115: __________________________;
Pp. 115-128: ________________________.

W, NOV. 12

Pp. 128 – 167: ________________________;
Pp. 167-195: ____________________.

W, NOV. 19

Pp. 195-218: __________________________;
Pp. 218 – 242: _________________________.

W, NOV. 26

Pp. 242-249: _______________________;
Pp. 249-267: ___________________.

W, DEC. 3

Student Presentations of Research

W, DEC. 10

Student Presentations of Research

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Department of Theology, University of Notre Dame
130 Malloy Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5602
Phone: 574-631-7811