Jacques Maritain Center : Readings

History of Philosophy

by William Turner, S.T.D.

Ginn and Company

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The Athenaeum Press


History of Philosophy : Introduction

Part I : Ancient Philosophy

  Section A : Oriental Philosophy
    Babylonia and Assyria

  Section B : Greek and Greco-Roman Philosophy
    First Period -- Pre-Socratic Philosophy
      Chapter I : Earlier Ionian School
      Chapter II : The Pythagorean School
      Chapter III : The Eleatic School
      Chapter IV : Later Ionian Philosophers
      Chapter V : The Atomists
      Chapter VI : The Sophists
    Second Period -- Socrates and the Socratic Schools
      Chapter VII : Socrates
      Chapter VIII : The Imperfectly Socratic Schools
      Chapter IX : Plato
      Chapter X : The Platonic Schools
      Chapter XI : Aristotle
      Chapter XII : The Peripatetic School
    Third Period. Post-Aristotelian Philosophy
      Chapter XIII : The Stoics
      Chapter XIV : The Epicureans
      Chapter XV : The Sceptics
      Chapter XVI : The Eclectics
      Chapter XVII : The Scientific Movement
      Chapter XVIII : Philosophy of the Romans

  Section C : Greco-Oriental Philosophy
    Chapter XIX : Greco-Jewish Philosophy
    Chapter XX : Neo-Pythagoreanism and Neo-Platonism

Part II : Philosophy of the Christian Era


  Section A : Patristic Philosophy
    Chapter XXI : Heretical Systems
    Chapter XXII : Ante-Nicene Fathers
    Chapter XXIII : Post-Nicene Fathers

  Section B : Scholastic Philosophy
    First Period of Scholasticism :
        Erigena to Roscelin

      Chapter XXIV : First Masters of the Schools
      Chapter XXV : John Scotus Erigena
      Chapter XXVI : Gerbert
      Chapter XXVII : The School of Auxerre
    Second Period of Scholasticism :
        Roscelin to Alexander of Hales (1050-1200)

      Chapter XXVIII : Predecessors of Roscelin
      Chapter XXIX : Roscelin
      Chapter XXX : St. Anselm
      Chapter XXXI : William of Champeaux, the Indifferentists, etc.
      Chapter XXXII : Abelard
      Chapter XXXIII : The School of Chartres
      Chapter XXXIV : Eclectics
      Chapter XXXV : THe Mystic School
      Chapter XXXVI : The Pantheistic School
    Third Period of Scholasticism :
        Alexander of Hales to Ockam (1200-1300)

      Chapter XXXVII : Predecessors of St. Thomas
      Chapter XXXVIII : St. Thomas of Aquin
      Chapter XXXIX : Thomists and Anti-Thomists
      Chapter XL : Henry of Ghent
      Chapter XLI : John Duns Scotus
      Chapter XLII : Averroism in the Schools
    Fourth Period of Scholasticism :
        Birth of Ockam to taking of Constantinople (1300-1453)

      Chapter XLIII : Predecessors of Ockham: Durandus, Aureolus
      Chapter XLIV : William of Ockam
      Chapter XLV : Followers and Opponents of Ockam
      Chapter XLVI : The Mystic School
      Chapter XLVII : Nicholas of Autrecourt

  Section C : Modern Philosophy
    First Period -- Transition from Scholastic to Modern Philosophy
      Chapter XLVIII : Scholastics of the Transition Period
      Chapter XLIX : The Humanists
      Chapter L : Italian Philosophy of Nature
      Chapter LI : The Scientific Movement
      Chapter LII : Protestant Mysticism
      Chapter LIII : Systems of Political Philosophy
    Second Period -- From Descartes to Kant
      Chapter LIV : Descartes
      Chapter LV : Cartesianism
      Chapter LVI : Spinoza
      Chapter LVII : English Empiricism
      Chapter LVIII : British Moralists
      Chapter LIX : French Empiricism
      Chapter LX : The Idealistic Movement
      Chapter LXI : Pan-phenomenalism -- Hume
      Chapter LXII : German Illumination -- Transition to Kant
    Third Period -- From Kant to Our Own Time
      Chapter LXIII : German Philosophy: Kant
      Chapter LXIV : German Philosophy: The Kantians, The Romantic Movement, Fichte, Schelling
      Chapter LXV : German Philosophy: Hegel, the Hegelians
      Chapter LXVI : German Philosophy: The Reaction against Hegel; Herbart, Schopenhauer
      Chapter LXVII : The Scottish School
      Chapter LXVIII : French Philosophy
      Chapter LXIX : English Philosophy
      Chapter LXX : Italian Philosophy
      Chapter LXXI : American Philosophy
      Chapter LXXII : Catholic Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century
      Chapter LXXIII : Contemporary Philosophy
      Chapter LXXIV : Conclusion


The purpose of the writer in compiling this text-book has been so to set forth the succession of schools and systems of philosophy as to accord to Scholasticism a presentation in some degree adequate to its importance in the history of speculative thought.

Of the text-books that are at present available for use in the lecture room, some dismiss the Scholastic period with a paragraph; others, while dealing with it more sympathetically, treat it from the point of view of German transcendentalism. The result is that even works which succeed in doing justice to the schoolmen are practically useless to students who are more familiar with the terminology of Scholasticism than with that of Hegelianism.

The scope of the work has determined not only the general arrangement of the volume, but also the selection of material and of bibliographical references. Under the title "Sources," the student will find mention of the most recent publications and of one or two standard works which have heen selected as being most easy of access. Bibliography is rapidly becoming a distinct branch of study in the different departments of philosophy. Dr. Rand's Bibliography of Philosophy, which is to be published as the third volume of Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, will doubtless meet the demand as far as completeness is concerned, and will render unnecessary the attempt to furnish complete lists of sources in a text-book such as this is intended to be. It is, therefore, with a view to inculcate a proper idea of historical method rather than to supply a complete bibliography that a paragraph entitled "Sources" is prefixed to each chapter.

Similarly, it is for the purpose of impressing on the student the importance of estimating the value of systems and schools of philosophy that, at the end of each chapter, suggestions for criticism are offered under the title "Historical Position." No one is more keenly alive than the author himself to the absurdity of regarding such criticisms as possessing more than a relative value. If they sometimes convey to the reader a sense of intended finality, allowance will perhaps be made for the impossibility of finding, within the limits of a text-book, space for a more ample discussion of questions which are far from being finally and incontrovertibly settled.

The plan of the work precludes much claim to originality. Use has been made of primary sources wherever it was possible to do so. In dealing with Scholastic philosophy, especially, recourse has been had to the works of the schoolmen, experience having abundantly shown the danger of relying on secondary authorities for this period. The frequent mention, both in the text and in the notes, of Zeller's Philosophie der Griechen, of Stöckl's Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Philosophie, of the Geschichte der Philosophie des Mittelalters by the same author, of De Wulf's Histoire de la philosophie médiévale, of González' Historia de la filosofia, and of Falckenberg's and Höffding's histories of modern philosophy, indicates the principal secondary sources which have been used, but does not represent the full extent of the writer's indebtedness to those works. In revising the manuscript and in reading the proofs use has been made of the Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology edited by Professor J. M. Baldwin.

The writer wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to the Rev. J. M. Prendergast, S.J., of Holy Cross College, Worcester, to the Rev. J. M. Reardon of the St. Paul Seminary, and to the Rev. T. E. Judge for many helpful suggestions in the course of their revision of some of the proofs. He is, moreover, indebted in a special manner to the Rev. H. Moynihan, S.T.D., of the St. Paul Seminary, for careful and scholarly reading of all the proofs, and to Professor Frank Thilly, Ph.D., of the University of Missouri, whose valuable criticisms and suggestions have been the more appreciated because they come from one whose view point is so different from that of the writer. He gratefully . acknowledges also the care and accuracy of the proof readers of the Athenaeum Press.

ST. PAUL, April 7, 1903.